Temporal dynamic resistance of skin and gastrointestinal bacteria in canine pyoderma

Temporal dynamic resistance of skin and gastrointestinal bacteria in canine pyoderma: Comparison between marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin in an investigator-blinded randomised interventional study. Pharmacokinetic data will be combined with MIC distribution together with the relationship between exposure and dynamic of bacterial kill modelled will be used to propose clinical breakpoints (highest MIC value considered “sensitive”) for fluoroquinolones in canine pyoderma.

Optimized dosing regimens for the combinations of sulphonamides and trimethoprim in veterinary medicine (SulTAn)

To fill the gaps related to the pharmacokinetics of Trimethoprim and Sulphonamides, and to the pharmacodynamics (PD) of their interaction on veterinary pathogens across multiple animal species.

This project will focus on the combination of different S with TMP in veterinary medicine and will aim at determining the needed adjustments or revisions to optimize TMPS dosage regimens in domestic animal species.

The in-vivo effect of photoactivated chromophore for keratitis cross-linking (PACK-CXL) on bacterial growth in canine patients with infectious keratitis

This study will investigate the effect of cross-linking using photoactivated riboflavin on the bacterial population present on the corneas and conjunctiva of canine patients with infectious ulcerative keratitis.

This study will determine if PACK-CXL can reduce the bacterial load at the ulcer site in vivo regardless of the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

Evaluation of the implementation of the UK Antimicrobial Resistance National Action Plan in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The project aims to evaluate the implementation of the UK Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) National Action Plan (NAP) 2019-2024 to contribute to the development and implementation of future AMR policy and adjustment of current implementation plans.

 AMR is a global threat; microorganisms with resistance genes can spread through the movement of people, animals, food, soil, air, and water. In addition, some resistance genes can be directly transferred between microorganisms.

Action project on Alternatives to Veterinary Antimicrobials (AVANT)

Professor of Veterinary Bacteriology Luca Guardabassi is the coordinator of a large EU Innovation Action project on Alternatives to Veterinary Antimicrobials (AVANT) involving 8 industries, 5 universities and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe.

AVANT is a multi-actor inter-sectorial project aimed at developing alternatives to antimicrobials for the management of bacterial infections in pigs, especially diarrhoea during the weaning period, as the major indication for antimicrobial use in livestock in Europe. 

CoEval-AMR: Convergence in Evaluation Frameworks for Integrated surveillance of Antimicrobial use (AMU) and Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

The CoEval-AMR network was created in 2019 with the goal of bringing people together to harmonize and refine existing methods and tools for assessing AMU and AMR surveillance from an integrated and systemic perspective.

Multiple research groups worldwide are working on the evaluation of integrated AMU/AMR surveillance looking at how approaches and methods can be refined to provide information that is relevant for making decisions on what surveillance approaches to use and thereby support the management of AMU and AMR. So far, the work of different research and implementation groups has resulted in multiple frameworks and disjointed recommendations for evaluation and measurement, which can be confusing for users.

PK/PD informed clinical breakpoint determination for colistin in chicken to limit emergence of resistance and improve One Health antimicrobial sustainability

This project aims to evaluate the impact of colistin use on antimicrobial resistance and rationalise dosing through a combination of in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) dose studies, in vitro pharmacodynamic (PD) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and advanced in silico PK/PD modelling.

To maintain colistin as an essential antimicrobial for both human and veterinary use, recent and reliable data regarding the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) at the clinical dose in poultry, and its impact on the potential selection of resistance is required to inform application and policy.

Development of rapid diagnostics to detect mycobacterial infections

Mycobacteria are very difficult to culture and can take weeks to grow. The aim of this project is to is to use novel patented bacteriophage technology to rapidly detect and diagnose infections caused by mycobacteria, such as Tuberculosis and Johne’s disease. Mycobacterial pathogens are responsible for a range of diseases in both humans and animals. TB in humans is primarily caused by M. tuberculosis and TB in cattle is primarily caused by M. bovis. Both organisms are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex group of organisms.

Molecular analysis of the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in food-producing animals and humans in Southeast Nigeria

A study of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria in food-producing animals and in-contact humans in Southeast Nigeria.

The indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents in humans and livestock imposes a selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria. In Nigeria, the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been recognised as a common mechanism of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae.

Foodborne diseases and public health governance: Comparing food safety, consumer preferences and governance in the supply of meat to urban markets.

Foodborne diseases are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and undernutrition including micronutrient deficiencies, with animal-derived food posing the highest risk for consumers in low and middle-income countries such as Peru. Traditional food markets are still the dominant distribution channel for locally produced food in developing countries and the main food source for most poor urban households. The research explores the safety of meat supplied through traditional food markets that serve poor urban consumers. 

Antibiotic usage on dairy farms in GB: improving data capture and exploring drivers

The aims of this PhD were to determine the accuracy of antibiotic usage data being recorded by dairy farmers on farm, identify factors influencing accurate recording, assess the drivers and barriers to record and share such data and to explore the economic cost of recording. Antibiotic usage (ABU) has become recognised as the main driver for the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance (ABR) within the human and livestock sectors.

Evaluating the surveillance system for Antimicrobial Use (AMU) and Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the United Kingdom from a One Health perspective

The project aims to assess the value of integrated surveillance systems for AMU and AMR in the UK from a One Health (OH) perspective.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health threat with major economic implications. Bacteria carrying resistance genes can be transmitted between humans, animals and the environment. Therefore, an integrated surveillance programme for AMR and antimicrobial use (AMU) needs to take into consideration the various routes of AMR transmission.

Functional genomics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is comprised of a group of closely related bacteria with distinct host preferences. Species such as Mycobacterium bovis causes TB in animals, but has a wide host range. Species such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum primarily cause TB in humans. Human TB is one of the top 10 causes of death from a single infectious agent and causes approximately 1.5 million deaths annually.

Novel nanotechnology for research, bioprocessing and antimicrobial therapy in human and animal health (Tecrea)

The RVC has developed a novel nanoparticle-based-system for delivery of nucleic acids into cells, often called "transfection".  The technology is applicable to a wide range of cell types, with potential in vivo applications.

Following patent filings and company creation to commercialise the technology, impacts include investment from private individuals and venture capital; sales of research kits and services; influence on regulatory agencies’ decisions and guidance, and out-licensing for both human and veterinary product applications. In addition to three (two completed) clinical trials in human health, the technology platform has been developed via a multi-million dollar (USD) license deal to a global animal health business for both production and companion animal applications.

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