Department: Pathobiology and Population Sciences
Research Centres: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health
Associate Professor of Spatial Epidemiology in the Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health (VEEPH) group.
Dr Kim Stevens is an Associate Professor of Spatial Epidemiology in the Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health (VEEPH) group. Her PhD from the University of London was in spatial statistics and machine learning. She is co-author of the textbook Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology, together with two book chapters on spatial epidemiology (CRC Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology; Routledge Handbook of Biosecurity and Invasive Species). She has co-authored over 60 papers on spatial epidemiology, statistics and machine learning. She acts as a consultant in spatial epidemiology for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). She has developed and delivered numerous workshops on spatial epidemiology, and spatial modelling. Kim is a member of the GeoVET scientific committee, is on the editorial boards of the journals Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, and the Equine Veterinary Journal’s Study Design and Data Analysis Board. She is a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society and of the Higher Education Academy.
Kim is Course Director of the MSc Veterinary Epidemiology, and Chair of the Modular Scheme Management Committee (MSMC). Her wide-ranging skillset includes spatial analysis, spatial modelling, machine learning, biostatistics, network analysis, epidemiology, and data presentation.
For the past six years Kim has worked primarily as in independent researcher while completing a part-time PhD (Risk-based Decision-making Tools for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1: A Comparison of Spatial Modelling Methods), the results of which have placed her as a leading figure in the rapidly evolving field of spatial and ecological niche modelling of disease. Not surprisingly, Kim’s research interests focus on the predictive mapping of disease, specifically vector-borne diseases, and the effect of anthropogenic influences such as climate change, on the changing spatio-temporal distribution of disease.
In addition to the publication of 60+ peer-reviewed journal articles, Kim has co-authored a book (Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology) and two book chapters on spatial epidemiology (CRC Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology; Routledge Handbook of Biosecurity and Invasive Species). Her combined skillsets of machine learning, statistics, network analysis, spatial analysis, and spatial and ecological niche modelling are unique within the VEEPH group and allow her to participate in a range of VEEPH and College-based research projects.
Previous research projects include:
- Spatio-temporal analysis of the European surveillance avian influenza data (for the European Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza Project; APHA)
- Spatio-temporal patterns of avian influneza H5N1 and H5N6 contamination in Vietnamese live bird markets
- Supervision of an MRes project (Emi Takahashi) – Predictive mapping of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector (Phlebotomus papatasi) in Jordan using a multi-criteria decision analysis approach- as part of the OIE Veterinary Education Twinning Programme between the RVC and the Jordan University for Science and Technology
- Development of cross border HPAI risk management strategies in SE Asia
- Flurisk: Development of a risk assessment methodological framework for potentially pandemic influenza strains
- Spatial analysis of scrapie in Great Britain
- Infectious diseases preparedness analysis and resources mapping across human and animal health sectors in Southern Africa
Pfeiffer, D.U., Robinson, T.P., Stevenson, M., Stevens, K.B., Rogers, D.J., Clements, A.C.A (2008). Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Stevens, KB (2021). Novel scientific approaches to understanding emerging infectious disease. In: The Routledge Handbook of Biosecurity and Invasive Species. Edited By K Barker, RA Francis, Routledge, pp 90-101.
Stevens, KB & Pfeiffer, DU (2016). The role of spatial analysis in risk-based animal disease management. In: Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology, 1st ed. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis
Brand, CL, O’Neill, DG, Belshaw, Z, Pegram, CL, Stevens, KB, Packer, RMA (2022). Pandemic puppies: Demographic characteristics, health and early life experiences of puppies acquired during the 2020 phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Animals,
Galipó, E, Dixon, MA, Fronterrè, C, Cucunubá, ZM, Basáñez, MG, Stevens, K, Flórez Sánchez, AC & Walker, M. Spatial distribution and risk factors for human cysticercosis in Colombia. Parasites & Vectors, 14: 10.1186/s13071-021-05092-8
Adedeji, AJ, Ijoma, SI, Atai, RB, Dogonyaro, BB, Adole, JA, Nanven, MA, Osemeke, OH, Waziri, IA, Atuman, YJ, Lyons, NA, Stevens, KB, Beard, PM, Limon-Vega, G. (2021) Household and animal factors associated with sheeppox and goatpox sero-prevalence and identification of high-risk areas in selected States of northern Nigeria. Prev. Vet. Med., 196, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105473
Packer, RMA, Brand, CL, Belshaw, Z, Pegram, CL, Stevens, KB, O'Neill, DG (2021). Pandemic puppies: Characterising motivations and behaviours of UK owners who purchased puppies during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Animals, 11, 2500. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092500
Taylor, C, Brodbelt, DC, Dobson, B, Catchpole, B, O’Neill, DG, Stevens, KB (2021) Spatio-temporal distribution and agroecological factors associated with canine leptospirosis in Great Britain. Prev. Vet. Med. 193: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105407
Romero, MP, Chang, YM, Brunton, LA, Prosser, A, Upton, P, Rees, E, Tearne, O, Arnold, M, Stevens, K, Drewe. JA (2021). A comparison of the value of two machine learning predictive models to support bovine tuberculosis disease control in England. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 188: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105264
Economu, L, Stell, A, O'Neill, DG, Schofield, I, Stevens, K, Brodbelt, D (2020) Incidence and risk factors for feline lymphoma in UK primary-care practice. Journal of Small Animal Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsap.13266
Takahashi, E A; Masoud, L; Mukbel, R; Guitian, J; Stevens, K B
Modelling habitat suitability in Jordan for the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector (Phlebotomus papatasi) using multicriteria decision analysis
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2020
Holm LP, Stevens KB, Walker DJ.
Pathology and Epidemiology of Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy in Dogs.
J Comp Pathol. 2020 Apr;176:156-161. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.03.003.
Schofield I, Stevens KB, Pittaway C, O'Neill DG, Fecht D, Dobson JM, Brodbelt DC.
Geographic distribution and environmental risk factors of lymphoma in dogs under primary-care in the UK.
J Small Anim Pract. 2019 Dec;60(12):746-754. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13075.
Jepson, R E; Cardwell, J M; Cortellini, S; Holm, L; Stevens, K B; Walker, D J.
Cutaneous and Renal Glomerular Vasculopathy: What Do We Know so Far?.
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA-SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE, 2019
Potter, K; Stevens, K B; Menzies-Gow, N J.
Prevalence of and risk factors for acute laminitis in horses treated with corticosteroids.
VETERINARY RECORD, 2019
La Sala, L F; Burgos, J M; Blanco, D E; Stevens, K B; Fernández, A R; Capobianco, G; Tohme, F; Pérez, A M.
Spatial modeling for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus at the interface of wild birds and backyard poultry.Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2019
Alarcon P, Marco-Jimenez F, Arnold M, Wolf A, Rajanayagam B, Stevens KB, Adkin A. Spatio-temporal and risk factor analysis of alleles related to Scrapie resistance in sheep in Great Britain before, during and after a national breeding program. Prev Vet Med 159:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.08.008
Stevens, KB, Jepson, R, Holm, L, Walker, D, Cardwell, JM (2018). Spatio-temporal patterns and agro-ecological risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama Rot) in dogs in the UK. Vet Rec pii: vetrec-2018-104892. doi: 10.1136/vr.104892
Stevens, KB, O’Neill, D, Jepson, R, Holm, L, Walker, D, Cardwell, JM (2018). Signalment risk factors for cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (Alabama Rot) in dogs in the UK. Vet Rec 183(14):448. doi: 10.1136/vr.104891
Mellor, KC, Meyer, A, Elkholly, DA, Fournié, G, Long, PT, Inui, K, Padungtod, P, Gilbert, M, Newman, SH, Vergne, T, Pfeiffer, DU, Stevens, KB (2018) Comparative epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and H5N6 in Vietnamese live bird markets: spatio-temporal patterns of distribution and risk factors. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00051
Fountain, KI, Stevens, KB, Lloyd, DH and Loeffler, A. (2017) Skin lesions in captive bats: an online survey of zoos and rehabilitators in Europe, North America and Australia. Veterinary Dermatology, doi: 10.1111/vde.12410
Sindato, C, Stevens, KB, Karimuribo, ED, Mboera, LEG, Paweska, JT, Dautu, G, Pfeiffer, DU (2016) Spatial heterogeneity of habitat suitability for Rift Valley fever occurrence in Tanzania: an ecological niche modelling approach. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005002.
Sangwan, A., Jackson, B., De Glanville, W., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K. (2016) Spatial analysis and identification of environmental risk factors affecting the distribution of Indoplanorbis and Lymnaea species in semi-arid and irrigated areas of Haryana, India. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 1(3): 252–262
Stevens, KB, Pfeiffer, DU. (2015) Sources of spatial animal and human health data: casting the net wide to deal more effectively with increasingly complex disease problems. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 13: 15-29
Pfeiffer, DU, Stevens, KB. (2015) Spatial and temporal data analysis in support of decision making for complex animal health problems in the Big Data era. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.05.012
A. A. Hill, T. Dewé, R. Kosmider, S. Von Dobschuetz, O. Munoz, A. Hanna, A. Fusaro, M. De Nardi, W. Howard, K. Stevens, L. Kelly, A. Havelaar, K. Stärk. (2015) Modelling the species jump: towards assessing the risk of human infection from novel avian influenzas. Royal Society Open Science 2: 150173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150173.
Munoz, O., De Nardi, M., van der Meulen, K., van Reeth, K. Koopmans, M., Harris, K., von Dobschuetz, S., Freidl, G., Meijer, A., Breed, A., Hill, A., Kosmider, R., Banks, J., Stärk, K.D.C., Wieland, B., Stevens, K., van der Werf, S., Enouf, V., Dauphin, G., Dundon, W., Cattoli, G., Capua, I., The FLURISK Consortium. (2015) Genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses in domestic animals and their potential role in interspecies transmission: a literature review. EcoHealth, DOI 10.1007/s10393-014-1004-1
Doyle, L. P., Gordon, A. W., Abernethy, D. A. & Stevens, K. (2014) Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: Risk factors associated with time from post-outbreak test to subsequent herd breakdown. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.010.
Von Dobschuetz, S. et al. (2014) Influenza surveillance in animals: what is our capacity to detect emerging influenza viruses with zoonotic potential? Epidemiology & Infection FirstView, 1-18, doi:doi:10.1017/S0950268814002106
Freidl GS, Meijer A, de Bruin E, de Nardi M, Munoz O, Capua I, Breed AC, Harris K, Hill A, Kosmider R, Banks J, von Dobschuetz S, Stark K, Wieland B, Stevens K, van der Werf S, Enouf V, van der Meulen K, Van Reeth K, Dauphin G, Koopmans M, FLURISK Consortium. (2014) Influenza at the animal–human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1). European Surveillance. 19(18):pii=20793. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20793
P. Mantis, D, Tontis, D. Church, D. Lloyd, K. Stevens, D. Balomenos, P. Gouletsou, G. Gianoulopoulos, D. Doukas, A. Galatos, M. Saridomichelakis (2014) High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of the normal canine skin. Veterinary Dermatology. DOI: 10.1111/vde.12120
Walker, D., Knuchel-Takano, A, McCutchan, A, Chang, Y-M, Downes, C, White, C, Williams, K, Miller, S, Stevens, K, Verheyen, K, Phillips, AD, Miah, S, Turmaine, M, Hibbert, A, Steiner, J, Suchodolski, J, Mohan, K, Eastwood, J, Allenspach, K, Smith, K, Garden, OA. (2013) A comprehensive pathological survey of duodenal biopsies from dogs with diet-responsive chronic enteropathy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 27, 862-874, doi:10.1111/jvim.12093
Stevens, K.B. Gilbert, M. Pfeiffer, D.U. (2013) Spatial suitability modelling of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 occurrence in domestic poultry in Asia using multicriteria decision analysis. Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology 4:1-14
Metras, R., Stevens, K.B., Abdu, P., Okike, I., Randolph, T., Grace, D., Pfeiffer, D.U., Costard, S. (2012) Identification of potential risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 outbreak occurrence in Lagos and Kano States, Nigeria, during the 2006-2007 epidemics. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, DOI: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01322.x
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U. (2011) Spatial modelling of disease using data- and knowledge-driven approaches. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 2(3): 125-133.
Stevens, K.B. (2011) Past students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of a one-year Master’s degree in veterinary epidemiology. Higher Education Research Network Journal, 3: 79-90.
Klinglmair K., Stevens KB, Gregory, N. (2011) Luminance and glare in indoor cattle-handling facilities. Animal Welfare, 20: 263-269
Mastin, A., Brouwer, A., Fox, M., Craig. P., Guitián, J., Li, W., Stevens, K. (2011) Spatial and temporal investigation of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigen prevalence in farm dogs in South Powys, Wales. Veterinary Parasitology, 178: 100-107
Volk, A., Belyavin, C. Varjonen, E. K., Cadiergues, M.C., Stevens, K., Bond, R. (2010) Malassezia pachydermatis and M. nana predominate amongst the cutaneous mycobiota of Sphynx cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 12:917-922
Menzies-Gow, N. J., Stevens, K., Barr, A., Camm, I., Pfeiffer, D., and Marr, C. M. (2010) Severity and outcome of equine pasture-associated laminitis managed in first opinion practice in the UK. The Veterinary Record, 167, 364-9.
Menzies-Gow, N.J., Stevens, K.B., Sepulveda, F.M., Jarvis, N., Marr, C.M. (2010) Repeatability and reproducibility of the Obel Grading System for equine laminitis. The Veterinary Record, 167: 52-55.
Stevens K.B., Del Rio Vilas V., Guitian J. (2009) Classical sheep scrapie in Great Britain: spatial analysis and identification of environmental and farm-related risk factors. BMC Veterinary Research, 5: 33
Jones, I.D., Case, A.M., Stevens, K.B., Boag, A., Rycroft, A. (2009) Factors contributing to the contamination of peripheral intravenous catheters in dogs and cats. Veterinary Record 164: 616-618
Jones, I.D., Case, A.M., Stevens, K.B., Boag, A., Rycroft, A.N. (2009) In vitro comparison of bacterial contamination of peripheral intravenous catheter connectors. Veterinary Record 164: 557-557
Theodoropoulos, G., Stevens, K.B, Hartsa, A., Theodoropoulou, H. and Pfeiffer, D.U. (2009) farm-level factors associated with above-average production on pig farms in Evia, Greece. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 89: 163-166
Stevens, K.B., Marr, C.M., Horn, J.N.R., Pfeiffer, D.U., Perkins, J.D., Bowen, I.M., Allen, E.J., Campbell, J. and Elliott, J. (2009) Effect of left-sided valvular regurgitation on mortality and causes of death among a population of middle-aged and older horses. Veterinary Record 164: 6-10
Bond, R., Stevens, K., Perrins, N., Åhman, S. (2008) Carriage of Malassezia spp. yeasts in Cornish Rex, Devon Rex and Domestic short-haired cats: a cross-sectional survey. Veterinary Dermatology 19: 299-304
Boag, A.K., Neiger, R., Slater, L., Stevens, K.B., Haller, M., Church, D.B. 2007. Changes in the glomerular filtration rate of 27 cats with hyperthyroidism after treatment with radioactive iodine. Veterinary Record 161: 711-715
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Spickett, A.M., du Plessis, B., Dyasen, E., Vosloo, W. (2007) Influence of dipping practices on the seroprevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the foot and mouth disease buffer zone adjoining the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 74: 87-95
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Gilbert, J., Strachan, D., Robertson, J., Johnston, A.M. (2007) Antimicrobial drug usage on British commercial pig farms. Veterinary Record. 161: 45 – 52
Mantis, P., Lloyd, D.H., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K., Auxilia, S., Noli, C., Abramo, F., Miolo, A. (2007) Assessment of the effect of an aliamide-containing topical gel by evaluation of the reduction of wound volume measured by high resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice. 19: 113-119
Loeffler, A., Boag, A.K., Sung, J., Lindsay, J.A., Guardabassi, L., Dalsgaard, A., Smith, H., Stevens, K.B., Lloyd, D.H. (2005). Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56: 692-697
O’Brien, E., Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Hall, J., Marr, C.M. (2005) Factors associated with the wastage and achievements in competition of event horses registered in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record. 157: 9-13
Meyer, C., Guthrie, A.J., Stevens, K.B. (2005). Clinical and clinicopathological changes in 6 healthy ponies following intramuscular administration of multiple doses of imidocarb dipropionate. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76: 26-32
Menzies-Gow, N.J., Bailey, S.R., Stevens, K., Katz, I., Elliott, J., Marr, C.M. (2005). Digital blood flow and plasma endothelin concentration in clinically endotoxemic horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 66: 630-636
Mantis, P., Lloyd, D.H., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K., Auxilia, S., Noli, F., Abramo, F. (2005). High resolution ultrasonography of experimentally induced full-thickness canine skin wounds. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 17: 107-113
Van Winden, S., Stevens, K., Guitian, J., McGowan, M. (2005). Preliminary findings of a systematic review and expert opinion workshop on biosecurity on cattle farms in the UK. Cattle Practice 13: 135-140
Smith MR, Stevens KB, Durham AE, Marr CM. (2003) Equine hepatic disease: the effect of patient- and case-specific variables on risk and prognosis. Equine Veterinary Journal 35(6): 549-52
Guthrie, A.J., Stevens, K.B., Bosman, P.P. (1999) The circumstances surrounding the outbreak and spread of equine influenza in South Africa. Rev. Sci. Tech. 18: 179-185.
Kim has extensive experience (~14 years) of teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, is Course Director for the MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology and module leader of four modules: Applied Veterinary Epidemiology module of the MSc degree in Veterinary Epidemiology, th Research Methods module of the BSc Veterinary Nursing, and the Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation and the Study Design modules of the Graduate Diploma in Equine Locomotor Research (Grad Dip ELR).
Within the broader role of Lecturer, she undertakes and develops didactic and rotational teaching for the RVC's BVetMed, BioVetSci, BVN and MVetMed courses, as well as the taught MSc degrees in Veterinary Epidemiology, One Health, and Wild Animal Health / Wild Animal Biology, and the distance learning MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health. Undergraduate teaching focuses specifically on basic data management, simple statistics, together with research skills such as scientific report writing and study design. Postgraduate teaching focuses on advanced data management (relational databases), advanced statistical techniques and spatial analysis. Kim has twice been awarded the RVC Memo for Teaching Excellence (2012 and 2017).
As part of her personal development in higher eduaction teaching and learning Kim completed the Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP) from King’s College London (2010-2011) and was awarded the King’s College London Higher Education Research Network Prize for the research project she undertook during that time.
This project aims to explore the epidemiology of canine leptospirosis in the UK by identifying spatial patterns of disease, diagnosis risk factors and incidence of disease. Alongside this work is being undertaken to explore vaccine usage and vaccine adverse events. Additionally, a novel serological assay with potentialp DIVA ability is being explored.
The aim of this project is to improve our understanding of equine infectious disease risks associated with the contact networks and spatio-temporal risk clusters created by competition and leisure horse movements within the UK.
Understanding these networks and clusters will inform future disease surveillance programmes and outbreak responses.
A study of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria in food-producing animals and in-contact humans in Southeast Nigeria.
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobial agents in humans and livestock imposes a selective pressure for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria. In Nigeria, the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been recognised as a common mechanism of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae.