Department: Pathobiology and Population Sciences
Research Centres: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health
Lecturer within the Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health (VEEPH) group
Kim graduated from the University of Natal (Pietermaritzburg), South Africa with a BSc (1993) and MSc (1995) in Agriculture (major: Animal Science) and was awarded the prize for Best Animal Science Student for her undergraduate studies. Initially she worked for the University of Pretoria as a Research Assistant in the Department of Veterinary Physiology (1995) and later as a Senior Research Assistant for the Equine Research Centre (1996-2000). After moving to the UK, Kim joined the Epidemiology Division of the RVC as a Research Assistant (2002) before being promoted to Assistant Lecturer (2008) and later, Lecturer (2016).
During her time with the RVC she has continued her personal development through the completion of a Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP) from King’s College London (2010-2011) and was awarded the King’s College London Higher Education Research Network Prize for the research project she undertook during that time (Past Students’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of a One-Year Master’s Degree in Veterinary Epidemiology). More recently (2009-2016) she completed a part-time PhD (University of London) in spatial epidemiology, focusing on spatial and ecological niche modelling methods and their use as risk-based decision-making tools for informing disease control and surveillance efforts. Not surprisingly, Kim’s research interests focus on the predictive mapping of disease, specifically vector-borne diseases, and the effect of anthropogenic influences such as climate change, on the changing spatio-temporal distribution of disease.
Relevant professional expertise and skills include (among others): Higher education teaching and learning | Spatial & ecological niche modelling | Spatial analysis | Geographic information systems (GIS) | Advanced statistical analysis | Data visualisation | Data management | Relational database design | Study design | Survey design | Scientific wiriting | Copy writing | Editing & proofing | Presentation design | Conference & event organisation | Time management coach | Productivity coach | Mentor.
Kim is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a member of the Study Design and Statistics Panel of the Equine Veterinary Journal, and a statistical consultant for the journal Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia.
For the past six years Kim has worked primarily as in independent researcher while completing a part-time PhD (Risk-based Decision-making Tools for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1: A Comparison of Spatial Modelling Methods), the results of which have placed her as a leading figure in the rapidly evolving field of spatial and ecological niche modelling of disease. Not surprisingly, Kim’s research interests focus on the predictive mapping of disease, specifically vector-borne diseases, and the effect of anthropogenic influences such as climate change, on the changing spatio-temporal distribution of disease.
In addition to the publication of 40+ peer-reviewed journal articles, Kim has co-authored a book (Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology) and book chapter (The role of spatial analysis in risk-based animal disease management; In: Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology). Her combined skillsets of advanced statistics, spatial analysis, and spatial and ecological niche modelling are unique within the VEEPH group and allow her to participate in a range of VEEPH and College-based research projects.
Ongoing research projects include:
- Spatio-temporal analysis of the European surveillance avian influenza data (for the European Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza Project; APHA)
- Spatio-temporal patterns of avian influneza H5N1 and H5N6 contamination in Vietnamese live bird markets
- Supervision of an MRes project (Emi Takahashi) – Predictive mapping of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector (Phlebotomus papatasi) in Jordan using a multi-criteria decision analysis approach- as part of the OIE Veterinary Education Twinning Programme between the RVC and the Jordan University for Science and Technology
Previous research projects include:
- Development of cross border HPAI risk management strategies in SE Asia
- Flurisk: Development of a risk assessment methodological framework for potentially pandemic influenza strains
- Spatial analysis of scrapie in Great Britain
- Infectious diseases preparedness analysis and resources mapping across human and animal health sectors in Southern Africa
Pfeiffer, D.U., Robinson, T.P., Stevenson, M., Stevens, K.B., Rogers, D.J., Clements, A.C.A (2008). Spatial Analysis in Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Stevens, KB & Pfeiffer, DU (2016). The role of spatial analysis in risk-based animal disease management. In: Handbook of Spatial Epidemiology, 1st ed. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis
Fountain, KI, Stevens, KB, Lloyd, DH and Loeffler, A. (2017) Skin lesions in captive bats: an online survey of zoos and rehabilitators in Europe, North America and Australia. Veterinary Dermatology, doi: 10.1111/vde.12410
Sindato, C, Stevens, KB, Karimuribo, ED, Mboera, LEG, Paweska, JT, Dautu, G, Pfeiffer, DU (2016) Spatial heterogeneity of habitat suitability for Rift Valley fever occurrence in Tanzania: an ecological niche modelling approach. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005002.
Sangwan, A., Jackson, B., De Glanville, W., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K. (2016) Spatial analysis and identification of environmental risk factors affecting the distribution of Indoplanorbis and Lymnaea species in semi-arid and irrigated areas of Haryana, India. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 1(3): 252–262
Stevens, KB, Pfeiffer, DU. (2015) Sources of spatial animal and human health data: casting the net wide to deal more effectively with increasingly complex disease problems. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 13: 15-29
Pfeiffer, DU, Stevens, KB. (2015) Spatial and temporal data analysis in support of decision making for complex animal health problems in the Big Data era. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.05.012
A. A. Hill, T. Dewé, R. Kosmider, S. Von Dobschuetz, O. Munoz, A. Hanna, A. Fusaro, M. De Nardi, W. Howard, K. Stevens, L. Kelly, A. Havelaar, K. Stärk. (2015) Modelling the species jump: towards assessing the risk of human infection from novel avian influenzas. Royal Society Open Science 2: 150173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150173.
Munoz, O., De Nardi, M., van der Meulen, K., van Reeth, K. Koopmans, M., Harris, K., von Dobschuetz, S., Freidl, G., Meijer, A., Breed, A., Hill, A., Kosmider, R., Banks, J., Stärk, K.D.C., Wieland, B., Stevens, K., van der Werf, S., Enouf, V., Dauphin, G., Dundon, W., Cattoli, G., Capua, I., The FLURISK Consortium. (2015) Genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses in domestic animals and their potential role in interspecies transmission: a literature review. EcoHealth, DOI 10.1007/s10393-014-1004-1
Doyle, L. P., Gordon, A. W., Abernethy, D. A. & Stevens, K. (2014) Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: Risk factors associated with time from post-outbreak test to subsequent herd breakdown. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.010.
Von Dobschuetz, S. et al. (2014) Influenza surveillance in animals: what is our capacity to detect emerging influenza viruses with zoonotic potential? Epidemiology & Infection FirstView, 1-18, doi:doi:10.1017/S0950268814002106
Freidl GS, Meijer A, de Bruin E, de Nardi M, Munoz O, Capua I, Breed AC, Harris K, Hill A, Kosmider R, Banks J, von Dobschuetz S, Stark K, Wieland B, Stevens K, van der Werf S, Enouf V, van der Meulen K, Van Reeth K, Dauphin G, Koopmans M, FLURISK Consortium. (2014) Influenza at the animal–human interface: a review of the literature for virological evidence of human infection with swine or avian influenza viruses other than A(H5N1). European Surveillance. 19(18):pii=20793. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20793
P. Mantis, D, Tontis, D. Church, D. Lloyd, K. Stevens, D. Balomenos, P. Gouletsou, G. Gianoulopoulos, D. Doukas, A. Galatos, M. Saridomichelakis (2014) High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of the normal canine skin. Veterinary Dermatology. DOI: 10.1111/vde.12120
Walker, D., Knuchel-Takano, A, McCutchan, A, Chang, Y-M, Downes, C, White, C, Williams, K, Miller, S, Stevens, K, Verheyen, K, Phillips, AD, Miah, S, Turmaine, M, Hibbert, A, Steiner, J, Suchodolski, J, Mohan, K, Eastwood, J, Allenspach, K, Smith, K, Garden, OA. (2013) A comprehensive pathological survey of duodenal biopsies from dogs with diet-responsive chronic enteropathy. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 27, 862-874, doi:10.1111/jvim.12093
Stevens, K.B. Gilbert, M. Pfeiffer, D.U. (2013) Spatial suitability modelling of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 occurrence in domestic poultry in Asia using multicriteria decision analysis. Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Epidemiology 4:1-14
Metras, R., Stevens, K.B., Abdu, P., Okike, I., Randolph, T., Grace, D., Pfeiffer, D.U., Costard, S. (2012) Identification of potential risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 outbreak occurrence in Lagos and Kano States, Nigeria, during the 2006-2007 epidemics. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, DOI: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01322.x
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U. (2011) Spatial modelling of disease using data- and knowledge-driven approaches. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 2(3): 125-133.
Stevens, K.B. (2011) Past students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of a one-year Master’s degree in veterinary epidemiology. Higher Education Research Network Journal, 3: 79-90.
Klinglmair K., Stevens KB, Gregory, N. (2011) Luminance and glare in indoor cattle-handling facilities. Animal Welfare, 20: 263-269
Mastin, A., Brouwer, A., Fox, M., Craig. P., Guitián, J., Li, W., Stevens, K. (2011) Spatial and temporal investigation of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigen prevalence in farm dogs in South Powys, Wales. Veterinary Parasitology, 178: 100-107
Volk, A., Belyavin, C. Varjonen, E. K., Cadiergues, M.C., Stevens, K., Bond, R. (2010) Malassezia pachydermatis and M. nana predominate amongst the cutaneous mycobiota of Sphynx cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 12:917-922
Menzies-Gow, N. J., Stevens, K., Barr, A., Camm, I., Pfeiffer, D., and Marr, C. M. (2010) Severity and outcome of equine pasture-associated laminitis managed in first opinion practice in the UK. The Veterinary Record, 167, 364-9.
Menzies-Gow, N.J., Stevens, K.B., Sepulveda, F.M., Jarvis, N., Marr, C.M. (2010) Repeatability and reproducibility of the Obel Grading System for equine laminitis. The Veterinary Record, 167: 52-55.
Stevens K.B., Del Rio Vilas V., Guitian J. (2009) Classical sheep scrapie in Great Britain: spatial analysis and identification of environmental and farm-related risk factors. BMC Veterinary Research, 5: 33
Jones, I.D., Case, A.M., Stevens, K.B., Boag, A., Rycroft, A. (2009) Factors contributing to the contamination of peripheral intravenous catheters in dogs and cats. Veterinary Record 164: 616-618
Jones, I.D., Case, A.M., Stevens, K.B., Boag, A., Rycroft, A.N. (2009) In vitro comparison of bacterial contamination of peripheral intravenous catheter connectors. Veterinary Record 164: 557-557
Theodoropoulos, G., Stevens, K.B, Hartsa, A., Theodoropoulou, H. and Pfeiffer, D.U. (2009) farm-level factors associated with above-average production on pig farms in Evia, Greece. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 89: 163-166
Stevens, K.B., Marr, C.M., Horn, J.N.R., Pfeiffer, D.U., Perkins, J.D., Bowen, I.M., Allen, E.J., Campbell, J. and Elliott, J. (2009) Effect of left-sided valvular regurgitation on mortality and causes of death among a population of middle-aged and older horses. Veterinary Record 164: 6-10
Bond, R., Stevens, K., Perrins, N., Åhman, S. (2008) Carriage of Malassezia spp. yeasts in Cornish Rex, Devon Rex and Domestic short-haired cats: a cross-sectional survey. Veterinary Dermatology 19: 299-304
Boag, A.K., Neiger, R., Slater, L., Stevens, K.B., Haller, M., Church, D.B. 2007. Changes in the glomerular filtration rate of 27 cats with hyperthyroidism after treatment with radioactive iodine. Veterinary Record 161: 711-715
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Spickett, A.M., du Plessis, B., Dyasen, E., Vosloo, W. (2007) Influence of dipping practices on the seroprevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the foot and mouth disease buffer zone adjoining the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 74: 87-95
Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Gilbert, J., Strachan, D., Robertson, J., Johnston, A.M. (2007) Antimicrobial drug usage on British commercial pig farms. Veterinary Record. 161: 45 – 52
Mantis, P., Lloyd, D.H., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K., Auxilia, S., Noli, C., Abramo, F., Miolo, A. (2007) Assessment of the effect of an aliamide-containing topical gel by evaluation of the reduction of wound volume measured by high resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice. 19: 113-119
Loeffler, A., Boag, A.K., Sung, J., Lindsay, J.A., Guardabassi, L., Dalsgaard, A., Smith, H., Stevens, K.B., Lloyd, D.H. (2005). Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56: 692-697
O’Brien, E., Stevens, K.B., Pfeiffer, D.U., Hall, J., Marr, C.M. (2005) Factors associated with the wastage and achievements in competition of event horses registered in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record. 157: 9-13
Meyer, C., Guthrie, A.J., Stevens, K.B. (2005). Clinical and clinicopathological changes in 6 healthy ponies following intramuscular administration of multiple doses of imidocarb dipropionate. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 76: 26-32
Menzies-Gow, N.J., Bailey, S.R., Stevens, K., Katz, I., Elliott, J., Marr, C.M. (2005). Digital blood flow and plasma endothelin concentration in clinically endotoxemic horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 66: 630-636
Mantis, P., Lloyd, D.H., Pfeiffer, D., Stevens, K., Auxilia, S., Noli, F., Abramo, F. (2005). High resolution ultrasonography of experimentally induced full-thickness canine skin wounds. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 17: 107-113
Van Winden, S., Stevens, K., Guitian, J., McGowan, M. (2005). Preliminary findings of a systematic review and expert opinion workshop on biosecurity on cattle farms in the UK. Cattle Practice 13: 135-140
Smith MR, Stevens KB, Durham AE, Marr CM. (2003) Equine hepatic disease: the effect of patient- and case-specific variables on risk and prognosis. Equine Veterinary Journal 35(6): 549-52
Guthrie, A.J., Stevens, K.B., Bosman, P.P. (1999) The circumstances surrounding the outbreak and spread of equine influenza in South Africa. Rev. Sci. Tech. 18: 179-185.
Kim has extensive experience (~14 years) of teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, and is co-module leader for the Applied Veterinary Epidemiology module of the MSc degree in Veterinary Epidemiology and module leader for the Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation module of the Graduate Diploma in Equine Locomotor Research (Grad Dip ELR).
Within the broader role of Lecturer, she undertakes and develops didactic and rotational teaching for the RVC's BVetMed, BioVetSci, BVN and MVetMed courses, as well as the taught MSc degrees in Veterinary Epidemiology, One Health, and Wild Animal Health / Wild Animal Biology, and the distance learning MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health. Undergraduate teaching focuses specifically on basic data management, simple data analysis techniques and data visualisation, together with research skills such as scientific report writing. Postgraduate teaching focuses on advanced data management, advanced statistical analysis and spatial analysis. Kim has received several commendations for her teaching (e.g. Memo of Teaching Excellence).
As part of her personal development in higher eduaction teaching and learning Kim completed the Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice (PGCAP) from King’s College London (2010-2011) and was awarded the King’s College London Higher Education Research Network Prize for the research project she undertook during that time. She is also currently completing the Coursera Specialization: Learning How to Learn (a course that covers learning techniques used by experts for the mastery of a subject, and best practices shown by research to be most effective in helping to master tough subjects). As a result of what she has learnt on this course, and the fact that traditional lecturing has been shown to be frequently out of tune with how we learn best - short, focused 'soundbites' of information more naturally hold our attention than traditional lectures (see Why Virtual Classes can Be Better than Real Ones) - Kim is currently focused on the design and development of a range of effective e-learning materials, both for the wider scientific audience, and to complement the courses she teaches in-house.