Department: Pathobiology and Population Sciences

Campus: Hawkshead

Research Groups: Ecosystems Health, Host-Pathogen Interactions and Vaccinology, Safe and Sustainable Food

Research Centres: Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health

Julian is a Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Epidemiology and co-director of the MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology course (run jointly by the RVC and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). He is an RCVS Specialist in Veterinary Epidemiology, a European Veterinary Specialist in Wildlife Population Health, and a scientific expert on the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare of the European Food Safety Authority.  Julian is particularly interested in the effects of uncertainty and bias on decision-making processes for disease management. His reserach covers epidemiology (animal and human), particularly health surveillance and wildlife diseases. 

January 2019 update: PhD studentship available on Improving animal health surveillance through better engagement between farmers, vets and government (Closing date: 10 February 2019).

2015-date  Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Epidemiology, RVC
2012-2015  Lecturer in Veterinary Epidemiology, RVC
2010-2012  Postdoctoral research: development of the SERVAL surveillance evaluation framework, RVC/AHVLA
2009-2010  Research Fellow in Veterinary Epidemiology, Royal Veterinary College (RVC), London
2005-2008  PhD, University of Cambridge (fieldwork conducted at the Kalahari Meerkat Project in South Africa)
2001-2005  Veterinary surgeon in general practice and a zoo, UK and South Africa

Qualifications and recognitions
2018 Member of the Animal Health and Welfare Panel, European Food Safety Authority
2016 Specialist in Veterinary Epidemiology, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons 
2014 Postgraduate Certificate in Veterinary Education and Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
2010 Diplomate of the European College of Zoological Medicine in the specialty of Wildlife Population Health
2009 PhD in Veterinary Epidemiology, University of Cambridge
2004 Master of Science in Wild Animal Health, Institute of Zoology and Royal Veterinary College
2004 Certificate in Zoological Medicine, Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons
2001 Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, Royal Veterinary College London

I am particularly interested in diseases that spread between humans, domestic animals and wildlife and am an advocate of interdisciplinary research (that which brings together people with different areas of expertise to tackle disease problems together).

I work with colleagues at the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA, formerly the AHVLA) to research novel ways for detecting TB (tuberculosis) in badgers. This is important because the same form of TB is found in cattle. You can read details about this project here and read a magazine article on the subject here.

My main research Interests are:

  • Design, refinement and evaluation of animal and public health surveillance programmes
  • Cleverer use of diagnostic tests at the individual and group level to better inform the management of diseases in animal populations.
  • Identifying animals or groups that are responsible for a disporoportionate amount of disease transmission. Targeting these individuals can result in much more effective disease control.
  • Understanding and managing risks of infectious disease transmission to/from humans, livestock and wildlife.

To hear more about the research I am involved in, you can listen to two podcasts (see links at the bottom of the "Selected Publications" tab).

In addition to working with colleagues at the RVC, I am involved or have recently been involved in collaborative research projects with scientists at the University of Cambridge, UK (TB in meerkats), Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, UK (disease surveillance evaluation), Animal and Plant Health Agency, UK (diseases in wildlife, particularly TB in badgers) and the University of Cape Town, South Africa (diseases in wild baboons).

A full publication list with citation metrics is available on Google Scholar.

34. Silk, M.J., Drewe, J.A., Delahay, R.J., Weber, N., Steward, L.C., Wilson-Aggarwal, J., Boots, M., Hodgson, D.J., Croft, D.P. and McDonald, R.A. (2018) Quantifying direct and indirect contacts for the potential transmission of infection between species using a multilayer contact network. Behaviour.
Highlights: Identifying when and how diseases pass between species is difficult because you can't see it happening. Here, we present a multilayer network framework to quantify disease transmission between species, by modelling real data on direct and indirect contacts between European badgers and domestic cattle. We include environmental transmission too. This novel network approach can provide general insights into disease transmission in other multi-host disease systems.

33. Nichols, C.P., Gregory, N.G., Goode, N., Gill, R.M.A. and Drewe, J.A. (2018) Regulation of bone mineral density in the grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis: Bioavailability of calcium oxalate, and implications for bark strippingJournal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 102: 330-336.
Highlights: Grey squirrels damage trees when they peel the bark off, but we don't know why they do this. It could be becasue they are searching for sugary sap or a source of calcium, or perhaps they just enjoy doing it. As part of his PhD, Chris Nichols investigated whether squirrels can use the calcium found under bark to add to their bone stores of calcium: the answer from this study was no.

32. Buzdugan, S.N., Chambers, M.A., Delahay, R.J. and Drewe, J.A. (2017) Quantitative interferon-gamma responses predict future disease progression in badgers naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Epidemiology and Infection 145: 3204-3213.
Highlights: Many wild badgers are infected with cattle tuberculosis in the UK. Diagnosing whether a badger is infected is difficult because it is practically difficult to catch and test badgers, and also the diagnostic tests available are not very accurate. Here, we analyse data from a range of badger TB test results. We show that some test results can be used to predict which badgers are most likely to go on to develop advanced disease and become infectious. These findings contribute to a better understanding of disease progression and potentially improved control.

31.   Buzdugan, S.N., Vergne, T., Grosbois, V., Delahay, R.J. and Drewe, J.A. (2017) Inference of the infection status of individuals using longitudinal testing data from cryptic populations: Towards a probabilistic approach to diagnosis. Scientific Reports 7: 1111. 
Highlights: This is a complicated-sounding paper but its message is quite straightforward. Confidently ascertaining whether an individual is infected can be challenging when diagnostic tests are imperfect and when some individuals go for long periods of time without being observed or sampled (this is what the cryptic bit in the title refers to: for example, nocturnal animals or 'hard-to-reach' people). Here, we present a new approach to diagnosis in which we move from the traditional way (an individual is either infected or uninfected) to a new way in which each individual is given a probability (likelihood) of infection that is constantly updated.This novel approach to combining ecological and epidemiological data is relevant to the diagnosis of diseases in animals and in humans.  

30.   Patterson, S.J., Drewe, J.A., Pfeiffer, D.U. and Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2017) Social and environmental factors affect tuberculosis-related mortality in wild meerkats. Journal of Animal Ecology 86: 442-450. 
Highlights: Our findings identify characteristics on which to base targeted control measures such as vaccination. Keep your eyes here for updates in the near future as we are currently testing this very approach.

29.   Clarke, C., Patterson, S.J., Drewe, J.A., Van Helden, P.D., Miller, M.A. and Parsons, S.D.C. (2017) Development and evaluation of a diagnostic cytokine-release assay for Mycobacterium suricattae infection in meerkats (Suricata suricatta). BMC Veterinary Research 13: 2.
Highlights: Tests for tuberculosis in most species (inlcuding humans) are imperfect. Here, we develop a new test for detecting TB in meerkats.

28.   Bisdorff, B., Schauer, B., Taylor, N., Rodríguez-Prieto, V., Comin, A., Brouwer, A., Dórea, F., Drewe, J.A., Hoinville, L., Lindberg, A., Martinez Avilés, M., Martínez-López, B., Peyre, M., Pinto-Ferreira, J., Rushton, J. Van Schaik, G., Stärk, K.D.C., Staubach, C., Vicente-Rubiano, M., Witteveen, G., Pfeiffer, D.U., Häsler, B. (2017) Active animal health surveillance in European Union Member States: Gaps and opportunities. Epidemiology and Infection 145: 802-817. 
Highlights: A review of the results of a survey of how surveillance for animal diseases in currently conducted across the EU; identifies opportunities for improvements.

27. Nichols, C.P., Drewe, J.A., Gill, R., Goode, N., Gregory, N. (2016) A novel causal mechanism for grey squirrel bark stripping: The Calcium Hypothesis. Forest Ecology and Management. 367: 12-20.
Highlights: Grey squirrels damage trees in the UK by stripping bark and eating the underlying phloem. Squirrel motivation for damage is, however, unknown. Damage can result in deterioration of timber quality and a significant economic toll on the forestry industry. A better understanding of what motivates grey squirrels to strip bark may enable a preventive approach to be developed. This paper reviews the evidence that squirrels damage trees to ameliorate a calcium deficiency.

26. Buzdugan, S.N., Chambers, M.A., Delahay, R.J. and Drewe, J.A. (2016) Diagnosis of tuberculosis in groups of badgers: An exploration of the impact of trapping efficiency, infection prevalence and the use of multiple tests. Epidemiology and Infection 144: 1717-1727.
Highlights: Current methods for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in live badgers are not very accurate. One way to improve this might be to diagnose infection at the group (rather than the individual) level. In this research paper, we model field data spanning 7 years containing over 2000 sampling events from a population of wild badgers in southwest England to quantify the ability to correctly identify the infection status of badgers at the group level. We explore the effects of variations in: (1) trapping efficiency; (2) prevalence of infection; (3) using three diagnostic tests singly and in combination with one another; and (4) the number of badgers required to test positive in order to classify groups as infected. We use our findings to make practical recommendations which may help improve TB diagnosis (and therefore control) in badgers.

25. DelBarco-Trillo, J., Greene, L.K., Goncalves, I.B., Fenkes, M., Wisseb, J.H., Drewe, J.A., Manser, M.A., Clutton-Brock, T.H. and Drea, C.M. (2016) Beyond aggression: testosterone’s modulation of social interaction among subordinate males in the cooperatively breeding meerkat. Hormones & Behavior 78: 95-106. 
Highlights: In male mammals, the hormone testosterone affects reproduction, social dominance, and aggressive behaviour. We examined the effect of temporarily blocking the effect of testosterone in  male meerkats. We found that testosterone plays an important role in mediating social interactions, which in turn has the potential to affect the chances of diseases being transmitted between individuals.

24. Dippenaar, A., Parsons, S.D.C., Sampson, S.L., van der Merwe, R.G., Drewe, J.A., Abdallah, A.M., Siame, K.K., van Pittius, N.C.G., van Helden, P.D., Pain, A. and Warren, R.M. (2015) Whole genome sequence analysis of Mycobacterium suricattae. Tuberculosis 95: 682-688.
Highlights: We present the entire genetic sequence (the DNA code) from the bacterium which causes tuberculosis (TB) in meerkats in southern Africa, and show how it is related to the bacteria which cause TB in other species.This is a new breakthrough in our understanding of the evolution of this ancient disease.

23. Velasova, M., Drewe, J.A., Gibbons, J., Green, M and Guitian, F.J. (2015) Evaluation of the usefulness at national level of the dairy cattle health and production recording systems in Great Britain. Veterinary Record doi: 10.1136/vr.103034. 
Highlights: We looked at the ability of 59 existing recording systems to generate accurate and reliable estimates of the frequency of important health conditions in the dairy herd of Great Britain. Johne’s disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, mastitis and lameness were the most commonly recorded conditions, but there were considerable differences in the coverage, implementation and objectives of the systems evaluated. We found that even though the individual systems could provide reliable estimates of dairy health for individual farmers, none of the systems alone could provide accurate and reliable estimates for any of the conditions of interest at national level.

22. O’Hagan, M.J.H., Courcier, E.A., Drewe, J.A., Gordon, A.W, McNair, J. and Abernethy, D.A. (2015) Risk factors for visible lesions or positive laboratory tests in bovine tuberculosis reactor cattle in Northern Ireland. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 120: 283–290. 
Highlights: This study discovered factors which increase the chance that a cow will test positive for TB. Risk factors apepar to be related to the time since infection, the strength of the challenge of infection and the susceptibility of the animal. These findings are important because the detection of lesions and the confirmation of TB are an integral part of the overall bTB control programme in Northern Ireland. The apparent TB status of an animal can affect the way in which TB breakdowns are managed, since failure to detect visible lesions or the causal bacteria can lead to a less stringent follow-up which may mean the disease is not controlled optimally.

21. Wang, J., Wang, M., Wang, S., Liu, Z., Shen, N., Si, W., Sun, G., Drewe, J.A., Cai, X. (2015) Peste des Petits Ruminant virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21: 677-680. doi: 10.3201/eid2104.141627.
Highlights: We investigated 11 outbreaks of a virus affecting small ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China in early 2014. We found that the most likely source of the virus that caused these outbreaks was animals introduced from livestock markets. This research is a result of collaborations formed between RVC staff and Chinese researchers during the ongoing Field Epidemiology Training Programme for Veterinarians in China, for which RVC is the lead training institution.

20. Drewe, J.A., Haesler, B., Rushton, J. and Staerk, K.D.C. (2014) Assessing the expenditure distribution of animal health surveillance: the case of Great Britain. Veterinary Record 174: 16. doi: 10.1136/vr.101846. 
Highlights: We developed an inventory of livestock health surveillance programmes in GB in 2011. We found livestock health surveillance funding to be unevenly distributed between species: the vast majority (approximately 94 per cent) was spent on cattle diseases (tuberculosis surveillance accounted for most of this expenditure). Consequently, surveillance an effort in GB appears heavily skewed towards regions with high cattle densities, particularly high-prevalence tuberculosis areas such as the southwest. Also see this editorial in the same edition of Vet Record which discusses the importance of this paper's findings.

19. Parsons, S.D.C., Drewe, J.A., Gey van Pittius, N.C., Warren, R.M. and van Helden, P.D. (2013) Novel cause of tuberculosis in meerkats, South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19: 2004-2007.
Highlights: The organism that causes tuberculosis in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) has been poorly characterised. Our genetic analysis showed it to be a new species of bacteria which is epidemiologically and genetically unique. We name this new species as Mycobacterium suricattae.

18. Kukielka, E., Barasona, J.A., Cowie, C.E., Drewe, J.A., Gortazar, C., Cotarelo, I. and Vicente, J. (2013) Spatial and temporal interactions between livestock and wildlife in South Central Spain assessed by camera traps. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 112: 213–221. 
Highlights: Camera traps were used to record interactions between livestock (cattle and domestic pigs) and wildlife (red deer and wild boar) over 12 months in south-central Spain. Direct contacts between wildlife and livestock were rare but indirect interactions were far more common, which reflects what has been found in other countries (e.g. badgers and cattle in UK: see reference 16 below). Areas near water were a hotspot for interactions between species which suggests that preventing animals from aggregating at such areas might reduce transmission risks of diseases such as bovine tuberculosis.

17. Hoinville, L.J., Alban, L., Drewe, J.A., Gibbens, J., Gustafson, L., Häsler, B., Saegerman, C., Salman, M. and Stärk, K.D.C. (2013) Proposed terms and concepts for describing and evaluating animal health surveillance systems. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 112: 1-12.
Highlights: Widespread movement of animals and their products around the world increases the risk of international disease spread. There is, therefore, a need for exchange between countries of comparable information about disease incidence; the exchange must be based on a common understanding of surveillance approaches and how surveillance systems are designed and implemented. This paper establishes agreed-upon definitions of surveillance terms as a first step in achieving this standardisation, to enhance transparency and confidence in international animal health surveillance.

16. Drewe, J.A., O’Connor, H., Weber, N., McDonald, R.A. and Delahay, R.J. (2013) Patterns of direct and indirect contact among cattle and badgers naturally infected with tuberculosis. Epidemiology and Infection 141: 1467–1475.
Highlights: We investigated interactions between badgers and cattle using automated proximity loggers. Direct contacts between badgers and cattle at pasture were very rare despite ample opportunity for interactions to occur. Indirect interactions (visits to badger latrines by badgers and cattle) were much more frequent than direct contacts. Our findings suggest that indirect contacts might be more important than direct contacts in terms of transmission of diseases such as TB. See also this feature in The Ecologist magazine.

15. Drewe, J.A., Hoinville, L.J., Cook, A.J.C., Floyd, T., Gunn, G. and Stärk, K.D.C. (2013) SERVAL: A new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillanceTransboundary and Emerging Diseases (62: 33-45, doi: 10.1111/tbed.12063). 
Highlights: Animal health surveillance protects animal and human health. Surveillance systems should be regularly evaluated to determine if they are providing useful information and to identify needed improvements. This paper introduces SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework developed at RVC and AHVLA. SERVAL is novel and generic which makes it suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. For more information and to download the SERVAL framework free of charge, visit the accompanying website here.

14. Abeyesinghe, S.M., Drewe, J.A., Asher, L., Wathes, C.M. and Collins, L.M. (2013) Do hens have friends? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143: 61-66. 
Highlights: We investigated the possibility that domesticated egg-laying hens form distinct 'friendships' by examining whether or not individual chickens were particular about who they spent most time with. This is not so odd a question as might be thought: in humans and other species, friendships have been shown to enrich life positively, buffer against stressful experiences and even improve reproductive success. However, we found no evidence to suggest that modern hens reared in commercial conditions form such friendships, even when they are housed in small groups where it is possible to know every other bird. So the answer to the question "do hens have best friends?" is: "it seems not"!

13. Drewe, J.A., Weber, N., Carter, S.P., Bearhop, S., Harrison, X.A., Dall, S.R.X., McDonald, R. A. and Delahay, R.J. (2012) Performance of proximity loggers in recording intra- and interspecies interactions: a laboratory and field-based validation study. PLoS One 7: e39068. 
Highlights: Automated proximity loggers are increasingly being used to record interactions between animals but their accuracy and reliability remained largely un-assessed until now. We assessed the performance of these devices in the lab and in the field by fitting them to cattle and badgers and using static base stations. We demonstrate how data can be manipulated to ensure it accurately reflects real life. We make five recommendations for the effective use of proximity loggers in future studies.

12. Drewe, J.A., O’Riain, J., Beamish, E., Currie, H. and Parsons, S. (2012) Survey of infections transmissible between baboons and humans in Cape Town, South AfricaEmerging Infectious Diseases 18: 298-301. 
Highlights: Baboons on South Africa’s Cape Peninsula come in frequent contact with humans. To determine potential health risks for both species, we screened 27 baboons from 5 troops for 10 infections of public health importance. Most (56%) baboons had antibodies reactive or cross-reactive to human viruses. We conclude that spatial overlap between these species poses low but potential health risks. Read more about this study here.

11. Drewe, J.A., Hoinville, L.J., Cook, A.J.C., Floyd, T. and Stärk, K.D.C. (2012) Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review Epidemiology and Infection 140: 575-590.
Highlights: We reviewed how epidemiologists around the world evaluate disease surveillance for human and animal health conditions. We found most could do better, for example by assessing more attributes and choosing the ones they do assess more systematically. We discovered that economic assessment is rarely done. We make recommendations to improve surveillance evaluation.

10. Drewe, J.A., Eames, K.T.D., Madden, J.R. and Pearce, G.P. (2011) Integrating contact network structure into tuberculosis epidemiology in meerkats in South Africa: implications for control Preventive Veterinary Medicine 101: 113-120. 
Highlights: We studied how social interactions between wild meerkats affect tuberculosis transmission in the Kalahari desert. We found that grooming was more risky than aggressive interactions. These results are rather neat because they offer an explanation as to why not all animals in a group become infected and why socially dominant individuals can by their behaviour be effectively protected from becoming infected.

9. Madden, J.R., Drewe, J.A., Pearce, G.P. and Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2011) The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 3. Position of individuals within networks Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 1857-1871.
Highlights: We examined social networks in and between groups of wild meerkats. Despite some patterns in who grooms whom, who competes for food against whom, and who is aggressive to whom, we found considerable variation between groups. We conclude that researchers should be cautious about treating individuals with similar attributes as functionally similar. This is relevant to studies of disease transmission where we often generalise or make conclusions on disease risk based on attributes such as age, sex and dominance status.

8.  Drewe, J.A., Tomlinson, A.J., Walker, N.J. and Delahay, R.J. (2010) Diagnostic accuracy and optimal use of three tests for tuberculosis in live badgers PLoS One 5(6): e11196.
Highlights: Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is notoriously difficult in live animals. We used a Bayesian approach to determine how best to use three TB tests in live-sampled badgers. We devised a way to combine results from each test leading to an estimated diagnostic accuracy of 93% meaning approximately 13 out of 14 animals had their true infection status correctly classified from samples collected on a single capture. This method represents a marked improvement on the current procedure for diagnosing TB in live badgers and could be applied to improve accuracy of TB diagnosis in other species.

7.  Drewe, J.A. (2010) Who infects whom? Social networks and tuberculosis transmission in wild meerkats Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 633-642.
Highlights: Transmission of infectious diseases is strongly influenced by who contacts whom. Here, I use a social network approach to examine the relative importance of a range of social interactions in spreading disease between meerkats. Contrary to predictions, the most socially interactive animals were not at highest risk of acquiring infection, indicating that in addition to contact frequency, the type and direction of interactions must be considered when quantifying disease risk.

6.  Asher, L., Collins, L.M., Ortiz-Pelaez, A., Drewe, J.A., Nicol, C.J. and Pfeiffer, D.U. (2009) Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare Journal of the Royal Society Interface 6: 1103-1119. 
Highlights: While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilised in the field of animal welfare. In this review we explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We discuss four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We highlight the potential applications and limitations of these methods in the assessment of animal welfare.

5.  Madden, J.R., Drewe, J.A., Pearce, G.P. and Clutton-Brock, T.H. (2009) The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 2. Intra-group interactions Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 81-95. 
Highlights: Knowledge of the how animals interact is important for understanding the evolution of cooperation, transmission of disease, and patterns of social learning, yet little is known of how environmental, ecological, or behavioural factors relate to such structures within groups. Here, we investigate these factors in groups of wild meerkats. We found that the pattern of interactions between group members is not consistent but instead depends on general attributes of the group, the influence of specific individuals, and ecological factors such as parasite load.

4. Drewe, J.A., Madden, J.R. and Pearce, G.P. (2009) The social network structure of a wild meerkat population: 1. Inter-group interactions Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 1295-1306. 
Highlights: We test whether social network analysis is useful for understanding patterns of contact between groups of animals. We looked at how stable interactions are over time and how different types of interactions between groups differ and relate this to risk of disease transmission. Spatial analysis of meerkat social networks reveals that roving male meerkats preferentially visit nearby groups rather than better groups (those with more females) further away.

3.  Drewe, J.A., Dean, G.S., Michel, A.L., Lyashchenko, K.P, Greenwald, R. and Pearce, G.P. (2009) Accuracy of three diagnostic tests for determining Mycobacterium bovis infection status in live-sampled wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 21: 31-39. 
Highlights: We use a Bayesian mathematical approach to work out the diagnostic accuracy of tests for TB in meerkats. Individually the tests were not particularly useful but using them in combination increased the accuracy of diagnosis to a level high enough to be valuable. [This approach has subsequently been adopted by other researchers working on TB in other species.]

2.  Drewe, J.A., Foote, A.K., Sutcliffe, R.L. and Pearce, G.P. (2009) Pathology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) Journal of Comparative Pathology 140: 12-24. 
Highlights: This paper (illustrated with lots of colourful photos) describes a detailed investigation into the pathology of TB in meerkats. The histological characteristics of the tuberculous lesions, together with the gross pathology and the wide range of body systems affected, suggest that TB in meerkats is acquired principally via the respiratory and oral routes, whereas excretion is most likely via the respiratory tract and suppurating skin wounds. The findings of this study provide information on the transmission, pathogenesis and epidemiology of TB in meerkats that is likely to be relevant to the understanding of M. bovis infection in other social mammal species such as the Eurasian badger.

1.  Drewe, J.A., Mwangi, D., Donoghue, H. and Cromie, R. (2009) PCR analysis of the presence and location of Mycobacterium avium in a constructed reed bed, with implications for avian tuberculosis control FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67: 320-328. 
Highlights: Reed beds are increasingly being planted to act as filters of dirty water. We examined if they remove harmful pathogens such as Mycobacterium avium – the agent that causes TB in birds. We discovered that they can effectively remove M. avium from the water through a combination of sedimentation and adsorption onto vegetation stems. The results of this study show that constructed reed beds composed of a settlement lagoon and one or more vegetation beds can act as valuable and ecologically friendly tools in the environmental control of avian TB.



Drewe, J.A. (2015) Bovine tuberculosis: how likely is a skin test reactor to be

I teach several aspects of epidemiology and wildlife disease ecology on these courses:

Undergraduate level
BSc in Bioveterinary Science (including the popular third-year module "Epidemiology: The bigger picture")
BSc in Comparative Pathology
BVetMed: 3rd, 4th and final years

Postgraduate level
MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology (course director from 2016 to 2018)
MSc in Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health - distance learning (module leader for ‘Surveillance and Investigation of Animal Health’ module)
MSc in One Health
MSc in Wild Animal Biology
MSc in Wild Animal Health

I teach on the Field Epidemiology Training Programme for Veterinarians in China. I also deliver workshops internationally for MSc students.

I collaborate with colleagues working in allied disciplines, for example Public Health England/APHA/Chartered Institute for Environmental Health (Zoonoses roadshow).


I run science seminars in local schools to encourage pupils to be interested in careers in science, as part of the RVC outreach programme. School classes curious about science can attend interactive masterclasses that I hold periodically at RVC. A typical topic is 'Deadly contacts: how your social network could trigger the next pandemic'. Contact the RVC outreach office if you would like more information.

Three times a year I head eastwards to teach as an international trainer on the Field Epidemiology Training Programme for Veterinarians in China. This includes field studies and workshops to explore the interface between animal and public health in China and ways to improve collaboration across disciplines.

Previously I have delivered workshops on epidemiology (including topics such as surveillance, risk analysis and outbreak investigation) at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science at the University of Peradeniya in Sri Lanka, and at the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) summer school in Morogoro, Tanzania. It was great to meet students who attended from across eastern and southern Africa, including: Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, Botswana and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

These workshops link to the RVC's distance learning MSc course in Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health.


  • Implications of land use changes on wildlife behaviour and infectious disease transmission to people (April 2014). Highlights: A short interview in which we discuss research we are conducting in Malaysia looking at how land use changes influence the behaviour of wild monkeys and their interactions with humans, with implications for the transmission of infectious diseases such as malaria. This research is funded by a fellowship grant from the London International Development Centre and is being conudcted researchers from the RVC (Julian Drewe and Martha Betson) and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (Kimberly Fornace). You can read more about the project here.
  • Wildlife Reservoirs of Disease and Tuberculosis (January 2010, 6.1MB, MPEG-4, also available via iTunes or the RVC eMedia website: RVC podcast no. 42). Highlights: Badgers are often blamed for the persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds in parts of the UK. Here Dr Julian Drewe describes his research on the dynamics of UK badger populations and meerkat communities in Africa and the potential importance of this for the spread of TB within and between species.

Popular articles

How do we solve a problem like tuberculosis in badgers? Here's a recent article I wrote for the American magazine The Wildlife Professional which outlines some ideas.

What do epidemiology conferences have in common with wooden elephants and Marmite? Read Epidemiology and the Giant Elephant to find out.

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