Department: Clinical Science and Services

Campus: Hawkshead

Research Groups: Antimicrobial Resistance, Host-Pathogen Interactions and Vaccinology, IRLFS (Research Programme)

Clinical Groups: Small Animal Dermatology

Anette is Professor in Veterinary Dermatology and Cutaneous Bacteriology at the RVC and is involved in providing clinical dermatology services at the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals (QMHA).

Anette graduated from Munich Veterinary School, Germany, in 1994, and worked five years in mixed practice in Cumbria. She joined the RVC in 2001 for a three-year residency program in Veterinary Dermatology and subsequently as a PhD research student on MRSA in companion animals.

Since 2008, Anette has been working as a Lecturer in Veterinary Dermatology at the RVC and is involved in clinical work, teaching and research.

She is a diplomate of the European College of Veterinary Dermatology and holds the RCVS diploma in Veterinary Dermatology.

Anette’s main research interests are staphylococcal diseases, antimicrobial resistance and meticillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA and MRSP). She collaborates with Prof Jodi Lindsay’s molecular microbiology research group at St.George’s Medical School, University of London, to study genetic aspects of Staphylococcus aureus evolution on animals, host-adaptation and antimicrobial resistance. Anette has a special interest in clinical, epidemiological and genetic aspects of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Between 2009 and 2011 she was involved in the PILGRIM project, an EU-funded FP7 collaborative research project on novel intervention strategies for MRSA in pig farming, which has led to ongoing further work on infection control methods for animal environments.

Anette is an advisor to the Bella Moss foundation charity and a member of the DEFRA subcommittee for MRSA in animals. Since 2018, she is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Veterinary Dermatology.


Call for coordinated antimicrobial approach at veterinary diagnostic laboratories.
Allerton F, Fishwick J, Paterson S, Weller R, Battersby I, Doyle R, Gould D, Caddy S, Dunning M, Featherstone HJ, Hardy J, Kent A, Pedro B, Smith K, Swinbourne F, Harris J, Heinrich C, Lau-Gillard P, Loeffler A, Maddinson R, Mason C, Ramsey I, Ridyard A, Robin L, Scudder C, Seth M, Tappin S, Singleton D, Smith H, Southerden P, Warland J, Whitehead M, Williams J.
Vet Rec. 2019 Jun 29;184(26):805-806

Fountain, K; Roberts, L; Young, V; Barbon, A; Frosini, S-M; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A.
Diversity of staphylococcal species cultured from captive Livingstone’s fruit bats (pteropus livingstonii) and their environment.

Frosini, S M; Bond, R; Rantala, M; Grönthal, T; Rankin, S C; O’Shea, K; Timofte, D; Schmidt, V; Lindsay, J; Loeffler, A.
Genetic resistance determinants to fusidic acid and chlorhexidine in variably susceptible staphylococci from dogs.
BMC Microbiology, 19;81; 2019

Wilson, A; Allers, N; Lloyd, D H; Bond, R; Loeffler, A.
Reduced antimicrobial prescribing during autogenous staphylococcal bacterin therapy: a retrospective study in dogs with pyoderma.

Loeffler, A; Herrick, D; Allen, S; Littlewood, J D.
Long-term management of horses with atopic dermatitis in southeastern England: a retrospective questionnaire study of owners’ perceptions.
VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY, 29;6:526-e176. 2018

McCarthy AJ, Harrison EM, Stanczak-Mrozek K, Leggett B, Waller A, Holmes MA, Lloyd DH, Lindsay JA, Loeffler A.
Genomic insights into the rapid emergence and evolution of MDR in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Apr;70(4):997-1007. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku496

Goh S, Loeffler A, Lloyd DH, Nair SP, Good L.
Oxacillin sensitization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by antisense peptide nucleic acids in vitro. BMC Microbiol. 2015 Nov 11;15:262. doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0599-x

McCarthy AJ, Loeffler A, Witney AA, Gould KA, Lloyd DH, Lindsay JA. Extensive horizontal gene transfer during Staphylococcus aureus co-colonization in vivo. Genome Biol Evol. 2014 Sep 25;6(10):2697-708. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evu214

Frank LA, Loeffler A. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: clinical challenge and treatment options. Vet Dermatol. 2012 Apr 4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01047.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Carson M, Meredith AL, Shaw DJ, Giotis ES, Lloyd DH, Loeffler A. Foxes as a potential wildlife reservoir for mecA-positive staphylococci. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Lloyd DH, Loeffler A, Nuttall T, Weese JS. Antimicrobial selective pressure in pet-owning healthcare workers. Vet Rec. 2012 Feb 25;170(8):211-2.

Bond R, Loeffler A. What's happened to Staphylococcus intermedius? Taxonomic revision and emergence of multi-drug resistance. J Small Anim Pract. 2012 Jan 17. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01165.x.

Loeffler A, Cobb MA, Bond R. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma. Vet Rec. 2011 Sep 3;169(10):249.

Giotis ES, Loeffler A, Lindsay JA, Lloyd DH. Reduced sensitivity of oxacillin-screening agar for detection of MRSA ST398 from colonized pigs. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Aug;49(8):3103-4.

Giotis ES, Tito, D, Bostock J, Zita J, Kluson, P, Krysa J, Yigit F, Kold K, Loeffler A, Guardabassi L, Lloyd DH, Stärk KDC. Development of pig accommodation suitable for testing the effects of hygiene and disinfection on MRSA carrier pigs. The Pig Journal 2011; 65:35-37.

Loeffler, A; Pfeiffer, DU; Lindsay, JA; Magalhães RJ; Lloyd, DH.  Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA carriage in companion animals: a survey of dogs, cats and horses. Epidemiology and Infection. 2011: 139;7:1019-1028.

Olivry T, Bizikova P, Dunston SM, Bond R, Halliwell R, Loeffler A, Pucheu-Haston CM, Chen M, Peter Marinkovich M. Clinical and immunological heterogeneity of canine subepidermal blistering dermatoses with anti-laminin-332 (laminin-5) auto-antibodies. Vet Dermatol. 2010 Aug;21(4):345-357. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2010.00870.x.

Soares Magalhães RJ, Loeffler A, Lindsay J, Rich M, Roberts L, Smith H, Lloyd DH, Pfeiffer DU. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in dogs and cats: a case-control study. Vet Res. 2010 Sep-Oct;41(5):55.

Loeffler A, Pfeiffer DU, Lloyd DH, Smith H, Soares-Magalhaes R, Lindsay JA. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in UK veterinary staff and owners of infected pets: new risk groups. J Hosp Infect. 2010 Mar;74(3):282-8.

Loeffler A, Lloyd DH. Companion animals: a reservoir for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community? Epidemiol Infect. 2010 May;138(5):595-605.

Loeffler A, Pfeiffer DU, Lindsay JA, Soares-Magalhaes R, Lloyd DH. Lack of transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between apparently healthy dogs in a rescue kennel. Vet Microbiol. 2010 Feb 24;141(1-2):178-81.

Loeffler A, Kearns AM, Ellington MJ, Smith LJ, Unt VE, Lindsay JA, Pfeiffer DU, Lloyd DH. First isolation of MRSA ST398 from UK animals: a new challenge for infection control teams? J Hosp Infect. 2009 Jul;72(3):269-71.

Loeffler A. MRSA in small animal practice: An update. In Practice 2008; 30, 538-43.

Loeffler A, Baines SJ, Toleman MS, Felmingham D, Milsom SK, Edwards EA, Lloyd DH. In vitro activity of fusidic acid and mupirocin against coagulase-positive staphylococci from pets. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Dec;62(6):1301-4.

Loeffler A, Linek M, Moodley A, Guardabassi L, Sung JM, Winkler M, Weiss R, Lloyd DH. First report of multiresistant, mecA-positive Staphylococcus intermedius in Europe: 12 cases from a veterinary dermatology referral clinic in Germany. Vet Dermatol. 2007 Dec;18(6):412-21.

Moodley A, Stegger M, Bagcigil AF, Baptiste KE, Loeffler A, Lloyd DH, Williams NJ, Leonard N, Abbott Y, Skov R, Guardabassi L. spa typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from domestic animals and veterinary staff in the UK and Ireland. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Dec;58(6):1118-23.

Loeffler A, Soares-Magalhaes R, Bond R, Lloyd DH. A retrospective analysis of case series using home-prepared and chicken hydrolysate diets in the diagnosis of adverse food reactions in 181 pruritic dogs. Vet Dermatol. 2006 Aug;17(4):273-9.

Bond R, Hutchinson MJ, Loeffler A. Serological, intradermal and live flea challenge tests in the assessment of hypersensitivity to flea antigens in cats (Felis domesticus). Parasitol Res. 2006 Sep;99(4):392-7.

Loeffler A, Boag AK, Sung J, Lindsay JA, Guardabassi L, Dalsgaard A, Smith H,Stevens KB, Lloyd DH. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Oct;56(4):692-7.

Loeffler A, Lloyd DH, Bond R, Kim JY, Pfeiffer DU. Dietary trials with a commercial chicken hydrolysate diet in 63 pruritic dogs. Vet Rec. 2004 Apr 24;154(17):519-22.

Boag A, Loeffler A, Lloyd DH. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from companion animals. Vet Rec. 2004 Mar 27;154(13):411.

Loeffler A, Lloyd DH, Holliman A. Identification and treatment of dermatophilosis in a Cumbrian cattle herd. Vet Rec. 2004 May 15;154(20):635-6.

Anette is involved in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching at the college which includes BVetMed years 2, 3 and 4, final year students during clinical rotations and senior clinical training scholars.

In addition, she is involved in several RVC CPD courses, both face-to-face and online, and lectures nationally and internationally on veterinary dermatology topics, MRSA and MRSP in animals, antimicrobial stewardship and infection control.

At the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Anette supervises small animal clinical cases and she works as part of the RVC Dermatology and Equine referral Services seeing horses with skin disease.

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