Department: Pathobiology and Population Sciences

Campus: Hawkshead

Research Groups: Host-Pathogen Interactions and Vaccinology, IRLFS (Research Programme)

Rob is a lecturer in Molecular Virology. His current interests include molecular biology, pathogenesis and control of arboviruses, as well as applied research into insect cell based protein expression technologies.

Rob graduated with a 1st in Biological Sciences from the University of Leicester in 1994. He went on to complete his PhD in molecular virology at the University of East Anglia in 1997, working on the replication and biotechnological uses of the pararetrovirus CaMV. Since then, he has worked on plant, insect, and mammalian viruses.

He completed post-doctoral studies on systemic movement of viruses, and on the role of nitric oxide as a signal molecule in innate responses to virus infection at Texas A&M and Rutgers Universities, respectively. Since 1999, he has been working on the arbovirus Bluetongue virus, first at University of Oxford, then at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, where he was appointed as a lecturer in 2004.

During this time he was involved in a number of projects studying the replication, assembly, packaging and pathogenesis of BTV and related viruses. Rob also has an interest in expression of recombinant proteins as prototype vaccines, and has particular expertise in the production of recombinant proteins, and protein complexes, in insect cells. He joined RVC in May 2009 as a lecturer in molecular virology.

In the past Rob has worked on a range of different viruses that infect mammalian, plant, and insect hosts, studying virus replication, movement, assembly and pathogenesis. His current research is divided between studies on arboviruses in the orbivirus genus, particularly Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness, and technology development for insect cell based protein expression.

In orbivirus research, Rob is interested in the molecular basis for virus infection and pathogenesis in both vertebrate and arthropod hosts. His research also includes studies relating to the control of orbivirus infections, particularly with regards to the development of improved vaccines for orbivirus diseases.

In protein expression research, Rob is an expert in expression of proteins and multi-protein complexes using the baculovirus expression system. This system is based on a virus that normally infects the larval stages of certain insects, and has been used successfully by many researchers for structural, functional and vaccine studies. Rob has recently developed improvements in the ease with which the baculovirus genome can be modified in vitro, and his research in this area is based on exploiting these improvements for enhancing the quality of protein production in this system.

i. Peer reviewed journal articles

Tng PYL, Carabajal Paladino L, Verkuijl SAN, Purcell J, Merits A, Leftwich PT, Fragkoudis R, Noad R, Alphey L. (2020). Cas13b-dependent and Cas13b-independent RNA knockdown of viral sequences in mosquito cells following guide RNA expression. Commun Biol. 3(1):413. doi: 10.1038/s42003-020-01142-6.

Noad RJ, Simpson K, Fooks AR, Hewson R, Gilbert SC, Stevens MP, Hosie MJ, Prior J, Kinsey AM, Entrican G, Simpson A, Whitty CJM, Carroll MW. (2019). UK vaccines network: Mapping priority pathogens of epidemic potential and vaccine pipeline developments. Vaccine. 37(43):6241-6247.

Tshilenge GM, Mulumba MLK, Misinzo G, Noad R, Dundon WG. Rift Valley fever virus in small ruminants in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (2019). Onderstepoort J Vet Res.;86(1):e1-e5. 

Roy P, Noad R. Use of bacterial artificial chromosomes in baculovirus research and recombinant protein expression: current trends and future perspectives.(2012) ISRN  Microbiol. 2012:628797. doi: 10.5402/2012/628797

Dautu G, Sindato C, Mweene AS, Samui KL, Roy P, Noad R, Paweska J, Majiwa PA, Musoke A. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia? (2012). Onderstepoort J Vet Res;79(2):E1-6. 

Noad R, Brownlie, J. Schmallenberg virus: continuing a trend?. (2013) Virus Adaptation and Treatment. 2013:5 11-19.

Jack C, Anstaett O, Adams J, Noad R, Brownlie J, Mertens P. (2012). Evidence of seroconversion to SBV in camelids. Vet Rec;170(23):603.

Pérez de Diego, AC, Athmaram, TN, Stewart, M, Rodríguez-Sánchez, B, Sánchez-Vizcaíno, JM, Noad, R, and Roy, P. (2011). Characterization of Protection Afforded by a Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine against Bluetongue Virus Serotypes 1 and 4 in Sheep. PLoS One. 6(10):e26666. 

Stewart, M, Bhatia, Y, Athmaran, TN, Noad, R, Gastaldi, C, Dubois, E, Russo, P ,Thiéry, R, Sailleau, C, Bréard, E, Zientara, S. and Roy, P (2010). Validation of a novel approach for the rapid production of immunogenic virus-like particles for bluetongue virus. Vaccine. 28(17):3047-54.  

Noad, R and Roy, P. (2009). Bluetongue Vaccines. Vaccine. 27 Suppl 4:D86-9.

Martínez-Alonso M, Toledo-Rubio V, Noad R , Unzueta U, Ferrer-Miralles N, Roy P,  Villaverde A (2009) Re-hosting bacterial chaperones to insect cells for high quality protein production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 75(24): 7850-4

Allen DJ, Noad R, Samuel D, Gray J, Roy P and Iturriza-Gómara M. (2009). Characterisation of a GII-4 Norovirus Variant-Specific Surface-Exposed Site Involved in Antibody Binding. Virol J. 6(1):150

Noad RJ, Stewart M, Boyce M, Celma CC, Willison KR, Roy P. (2009). Multigene expression of protein complexes by iterative modification of genomic Bacmid DNA. BMC Mol Biol. 10(1):87.

Roy P, Boyce M, Noad R. (2009). Prospects for improved bluetongue vaccines. Nat Rev Microbiol. 7(2):120-8.

Roy P, Noad R. Virus-like particles as a vaccine delivery system: myths and facts. (2008). Hum Vaccin. 4(1):5-12.

Bhattacharya B, Noad RJ, Roy P. (2007). Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress. Virol J. 4:7.

Roy P, Noad R. (2006). Bluetongue virus assembly and morphogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.309:87-116.

Lymperopoulos K, Noad R, Tosi S, Nethisinghe S, Brierley I, Roy P. (2006). Specific binding of Bluetongue virus NS2 to different viral plus-strand RNAs. Virology.353(1):17-26.

Boyce M, Wehrfritz J, Noad R, Roy P. (2004). Purified recombinant bluetongue virus VP1 exhibits RNA replicase activity. J Virol. 78(8):3994-4002.

Mortola E, Noad R, Roy P. (2004) Bluetongue virus outer capsid proteins are sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells. J Virol. 78(6):2875-83.

Noad R, Roy P. (2003) Virus-like particles as immunogens. Trends Microbiol. 11(9):438-44.

Klessig DF, Durner J, Noad R, Navarre DA, Wendehenne D, Kumar D, Zhou JM, Shah J, Zhang S, Kachroo P, Trifa Y, Pontier D, Lam E, Silva H. (2000). Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(16):8849-55.

Navarre DA, Wendehenne D, Durner J, Noad R, Klessig DF. (2000) Nitric oxide modulates the activity of tobacco aconitase. Plant Physiol. 122(2):573-82.

Chu M, Desvoyes B, Turina M, Noad R, Scholthof HB. (2000). Genetic dissection of tomato bushy stunt virus p19-protein-mediated host-dependent symptom induction and systemic invasion. Virology. 266(1):79-87.

Noad RJ, Al-Kaff NS, Turner DS, Covey SN. (1998). Analysis of polypurine tract-associated DNA plus-strand priming in vivo utilizing a plant pararetroviral vector carrying redundant ectopic priming elements. J Biol Chem. 4;273(49):32568-75.

Covey SN, Noad RJ, al-Kaff NS, Turner DS. (1998). Caulimovirus isolation and DNA extraction. Methods Mol Biol. 81: 53-63.

Noad RJ, Turner DS, Covey SN. (1997). Expression of functional elements inserted into the 35S promoter region of infectious cauliflower mosaic virus replicons. Nucleic Acids Res. 25(6):1123-9.

 ii Patents

Noad R & Roy P. A method for improved expression of multi-protein complexes in insect cells (P524196GB) pending.

Rob is currently organiser for the Infection and Immunity module of the Bioveterinary Sciences BSc. He also teaches on other courses within the college, including the BVetMed course, and MSc courses in Control of Infectious Diseases in Animals, Wild animal health and Wild Animal Biology. He holds a post graduate certificate of academic practice from King's College, London and is a fellow of the higher education academy.

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