Department: Pathobiology and Population Sciences
Najmul Haider is a Veterinarian, epidemiologist, and public health researcher experienced in conducting primary research with a concentration on "ONE HEALTH". Najmul is working on the epidemiology of the Lassa fever virus in West Africa and Chikungunya and other arboviral diseases in African countries. He joined RVC in January 2019 as a Post-doctoral Research in the PANDORA-ID-NET project. Through the PANDORA network, Najmul's study aims to interrupt the chain of Lassa fever virus transmission from rodents to humans in West Africa, and Chikungunya virus transmission from mosquitoes to humans in Central Africa. Najmul is also working on the Epidemiology of COVID-19 in the context of African and LMIC countries.
Najmul Haider is a Veterinarian, epidemiologist, and public health researcher experienced in conducting primary research with a concentration on "ONE HEALTH". Najmul is a Postdoc at RVC and he is working on Lassa Fever virus epidemiology in West Africa. Najmul received his Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark (National Veterinary Institute) in November 2018. Najmul's Ph.D. research was on modeling vector-borne disease (Bluetongue & Schmallenberg virus in Danish livestock and Setaria tundra in Finnish reindeer) transmission potential in Northern Europe with a special emphasis on microclimatic temperature. Before his Ph.D., Najmul worked as a Research Investigator for 6.5 years at International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR.B) in collaboration with US CDC. At ICDDR,B, Najmul worked on a number of zoonotic diseases including Avian influenza H5N1, Anthrax, and Hepatitis E Virus.
Ph.D. (Epidemiology) -Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, 2018
Certificate in One Health -University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 2014
MPH (Epidemiology), American International University, Bangladesh, 2013
MS (Vet. Theriogenology), Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, 2007
DVM (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine), University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2006
- Understanding the transmission mechanisms of zoonotic diseases between animals and humans with "OneHealth" approach
- Risk factors of zoonotic and infectious diseases and the intervention(s) to control the disease outbreaks
- Mathematical modeling of vector-borne diseases
- COVID-19: Epidemiology and global response to the pandemic
- Role of microclimatic temperature on vector-borne disease transmission
- Outbreak investigation in a multi-disciplinary approach
- Conducting field epidemiological studies (longitudinal, case-control, and cross-sectional studies)
- West African One Health actions for understanding, preventing, and mitigating outbreaks
- Area of research interest: Lassa fever, Chikungunya, Mosquito-borne diseases, COVID-19, One Health Epidemiology
Published articles: 61
First author publications (17):
17. Haider N, Guitian J, Simons D, Asogun D, Ansumana R, Honeyborne I, Velavan TP, Ntoumi F, Valdoleiros SR, Petersen E, Kock R, Zumla A: Increased outbreaks of monkeypox highlight gaps in actual disease burden in Sub-Saharan Africa and in animal reservoirs, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2022), 122, 107-111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.05.058
16. Haider N, Chang Y, Rahman M, Zumla A, Kock RA: Dengue outbreaks in Bangladesh: Historic epidemic patterns suggest earlier mosquito control intervention in the transmission season could reduce the monthly growth factor and extent of epidemics, Current Research in Parasitology & Vector-Borne Diseases: 2021, 100063, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpvbd.2021.100063
15. Haider N, Rothman-Ostrow P, Osman AY, Arruda LB, Macfarlane-Berry L, Elton L, et al. (2020) COVID-19—Zoonosis or Emerging Infectious Disease? Front Public Heal.; 8:1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.596944
14. Haider N, Osman AY, Gadzekpo A, Akpede GO, Asogun D, Ansumana R, et al. (2020). Lockdown measures in response to COVID-19 in nine Sub-Saharan African countries. BMJ Glob Heal.5:e003319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003319
13. Haider N, Yavlinsky A, Chang Y-M, Hasan MN, Benfield C, Osman AY, et al. (2020). The Global Health Security index and Joint External Evaluation score for health preparedness are not correlated with countries’ COVID-19 detection response time and mortality outcome. Epidemiol Infect. 2020;148: e210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0950268820002046
12. Haider N, Vairo F, Ippolito G, Zumla A, Kock RA (2020). Basic Reproduction Number of Chikungunya Virus Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020;26:2429–31. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2610.190957
11. Haider N, Yavlinksy A, Kock R (2020): Response on “Evaluation of modelling study shows limits of COVID-19 importing risk simulations in sub-Saharan Africa” Epidemiology & Infection, 148, https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026882000121
10. Haider N, Yavlinsky A, Simons D, Osman AY, Ntoumi F, Zumla A, Kock R (2020): Passengers’ destinations from China: Low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America, Epidemiology & Infection, 148, e41, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000424
9. Haider N, Kjær KJ, Skovgård H., Nielsen SN, Bødker R. (2019): Quantifying the potential for bluetongue virus transmission in Danish cattle farms, Sci Rep, 9, 13466, Doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49866-8
8. Haider, N, Laaksonen, S, Kjær, LJ, Oksanen, A, Bødker, R (2018): The annual, temporal and spatial pattern of Setaria tundra outbreaks in Finnish reindeer: a mechanistic transmission model approach, Parasit. Vectors, 11, 565
7. Haider, N., Cuellar, AC, Kjær, LJ, Sørensen, JH & Bødker, R (2018). Microclimatic temperatures at Danish cattle farms, 2000–2016: quantifying the temporal and spatial variation in the transmission potential of Schmallenberg virus. Parasit. Vectors, 11, 128
6. Haider, N, C. Kirkeby, Kristensen B, Kjaer LJ, Sorensen JH, and Bodker R (2017): Microclimatic temperatures increase the potential for vector-borne disease transmission in the Scandinavian climate. Sci Rep, 7, 8175.
5. Haider, N, Khan SU, Hossain MB, Sazzad HMS, Rahman MZ, Ahmed F, and Zeidner NS, (2017): Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh. Zoonoses Public Health; 64(7):572-577
4. Haider, N, Khan SU, Islam A, Osmani MG, Rahman MZ, Epstein JH, Daszak P and Zeidner NS (2017): Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 64, 1329-1333.
3. Haider, N, Sturm-Ramirez K, Khan SU, Rahman MZ, Sarkar S, M. K. Poh, et al. (2017): Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 64, 144-156.
2. Haider N., Rahman MS, Khan SU, Mikolon A, Osmani MG, Gurley ES, et al. (2015): Serological Evidence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Cattle and Goats in Bangladesh EcoHealth. 12(2):354-8.
1. Haider, N, Rahman MS, Khan SU, Mikolon A, Gurley ES, Osmanu MG, Shanta IS, et al. (2014): Identification and epidemiology of a rare HoBi-like pestivirus strain in Bangladesh. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 61, 193-198.
Senior Author Publications (2):
2. Haque FM, Rahman MM, Alif SM, Akter E, Barua S, Paul GK, Haider N (2021): Estimation and prediction of doubling time for COVID-19 epidemic in Bangladesh: a study of first 14 month’s daily confirmed new cases and deaths. Glob Biosecurity 3(1). DOI: http://doi.org/10.31646/gbio.91
1. Hossain MB, Rahman MS, Watson OJ, ….Haider N, (2020): Epidemiology and genotypes of group A rotaviruses in cattle and goats of Bangladesh, 2009-2010. Infect Genet Evol 2020; 79: 104170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104170
Co-author publications (36):
37. Satter AA, Irin N, Belgrad JP, Haider N, … Hoque MA: Measures, Gaps, and Mitigation Strategies in Bangladesh’s COVID-19 Response (2022): EcoHealth https://doi.org/10.1007/s10393-022-01607-6
36. Calvin Sindicato , Enron D. Karimuribo, Francesco Vairo, Najmul Haider, et al : Rift Valley fever seropositivity in humans and domestic ruminants and associated risk factors in Sengerema, Ilala, and Rufiji districts, Tanzania, International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2022), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.07.012
35. Zumla A, Valdoleiros SR, Haider N, Asogun D, Ntoumi F, Petersen E, Kock R: Monkeypox outbreaks outside endemic regions (2022): scientific and social priorities, Lancet Infectious Diseases, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00354-1
34. Mwanyika G.O, Sindato C, ….. , Haider N , Vairo F, Kock RA, Mboera LEG. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of chikungunya, dengue and Zika in eight districts in Tanzania, International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 111(2021) 271-280,doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.040
33. Mboera LEG, Sindato C, Mremi IR, Rumisha SF, …. Haider N, Hamid MA, Kock R: Socio-Ecological Systems Analysis and Health System Readiness in Responding to Dengue Epidemics in Ilala and Kinondoni Districts, Tanzania. Frontiers in Tropical Diseases 2:738758 (2021). https://doi.org/10.3389/fitd.2021.738758
32. Rahman, M.S., Faruk, M.O., Tanjila, S. ... Haider N. et al. Entomological survey for identification of Aedes larval breeding sites and their distribution in Chattogram, Bangladesh. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 10, 32 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43088-021-00122-x
31. Ahammed T, Anjum A, Rahman MM, Haider N, Kock R, Uddin MJ. Estimation of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) reproduction number and case fatality rate: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Sci Rep. 2021;4:e274. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.274
30. Arruda LB, Haider N, Olayemi A, Simons D, Ehichioya D, Yinka-Ogunleya A, Ansumana R, Thomason MJ, Asogun D, Ihekeazu C, Fichet-Calvet E, Kock RA (2021): The niche of one health approaches in Lassa fever surveillance and control, Annals of the Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 20 (29): doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12941-021-00431-0
29. Osman, A.Y.; Elmi, S.A.; Simons, D.; Elton, L.; Haider, N.; Khan, M.A.; Othman, I.; Zumla, A.; McCoy, D.; Kock, R. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1160. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160
28. Hassan MN, Haider N, Stigler FL, Khan RA, McCoy D, Zumla A, Kock RA, Uddin MJ., (2021). The global case-fatality rate of COVID-19 has been declining since May 2020, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. doi: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1496
27. R. Kock, A.L. Michel, D. Yeboah-Manu, … Haider N., Zumla A., Zoonotic Tuberculosis – The Changing Landscape, Int J Infect Dis (2021): 5174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.02.091
26. Elton, L., Haider, N., Kock, R. et al. Zoonotic disease preparedness in sub-Saharan African countries. One Health Outlook 3, 5 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42522-021-00037-8
25. Elmi, S.A., Simons, D., Elton, L., Haider, N., Abdel Hamid, M.M., Shuaib, Y.A., Khan, M.A., Othman, I., Kock, R., Osman, A.Y., (2021). Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Antibiotics 10, 117. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020117
24. Ingoba LL, Adedoja A, Peko SM, Vairo F, Haider N, Kock R et al. Diagnosis of Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Patients From a Malaria Holoendemic Area, Int J Inf Dis (2021): 109, 247-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.06.043
23. Bhuiyan MU, Stiboy E, Hassan MZ, Chan M, Islam MS, Haider N, et al. (2020): Epidemiology of COVID-19 infection in young children under five years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Vaccine. 39 (4) 667-677: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.11.078
22. Elaagip A, Alsedig K, Altahir O, Ageep T, Ahmed A, Siam HA, …Haider N…..et al. (2020): Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Dengue fever in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 14:e0008918. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008918
21. Islam MS, Hasan SMM, Salzer JS, Kadzik M, Haque F, Haider N, et al. (2020): Human exposures to by-products from animals suspected to have died of anthrax in Bangladesh: An exploratory study. Transbound Emerg Dis. tbed.13921. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13921
20. Vairo F, Aimè Coussoud-Mavoungou M, Ntoumi F, Castilletti C, Kitembo L, Haider N, et al. (2020): Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of the Congo, 2019—Epidemiological, Virological and Entomological Findings of a South-North Multidisciplinary Taskforce Investigation. Viruses. 2020;12:1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020
19. Elton L, Thomason MJ, Tembo J, Velavan TP, Pallerla SR, Arruda LB, …. Haider N et al. (2020): Antimicrobial resistance preparedness in sub-Saharan African countries. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control; 9:145. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-00800-y
18. Ahsan A, Haider N, Kock R, Benfield C (2020): Possible drivers of the 2019 Dengue outbreak in Bangladesh: the need for a robust community-level surveillance system, Journal of Medical Entomology: https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa150
17. Ghosh S, Rana MS, Kamrul MI, Chowdhury S, Haider N et al. (2020): Trends and clinico-epidemiological features of human rabies cases in Bangladesh 2006–2018. Scientific Reports 2020; 10: 2410 : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59109-w
16. Islam A, Hossain, ME, Haider N, Rostal MK, Mukharjee SK, Ferdous J, Rahman M, Daszak P, Rahman MZ, Epstein JH,(2019): Molecular Characterization of Group A Rotavirus from Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) at wildlife-Human-Wildlife Interfaces in Bangladesh, Transboundary and emerging diseases , doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13431
15. Vairo F, Haider N, Kock R, Ntoumi F, Ippolitoa G and Zumla A (2019): Chikungunya – Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Management and Prevention, Infect Dis Clin N Am, 33 (2019) 1003–1025: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2019.08.006
14. Kock RA, Haider N, Mboera LEG , Zumla A (2019): A One-Health lens for Anthrax: The Lancet Planetary Health: 3(7), e285 : doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30111-1
13. Khan SU, Gurley ES, Gerloff N, Rahman MZ, Simpson N, Rahman M, Haider N, Chowdhury S, Stephen P. Luby (2018): Avian influenza surveillance in domestic waterfowl and environment of live bird markets in Bangladesh, 2007-2012, Sci Rep, 8, 939
12. Rimi NA, Sultana R, Ahmed KI, Haider N, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Nahar N, Luby SP (2018): Where backyard poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for avian influenza education in Bangladesh (2018) BMC Public Health: 18: 969
11. Rahman, MZ, Haider, N, Gurley, E.S., Ahmed, S., Osmani, MG, Hossain, MB, et al. (2018). Epidemiology and genetic characterization of Peste des petits ruminants virus in Bangladesh. Vet. Med. Sci., 1–11
10. Chakraborty, A., M. Rahman, M. J. Hossain, S. U. Khan, M. S. Haider, R. Sultana, N. Ali Rimi, M. S. Islam, Haider N, et al, (2017): Mild Respiratory Illness Among Young Children Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2011. J Infect Dis, 216, S520-S528.
9. Rimi, N. A., R. Sultana, M. Muhsina, B. Uddin, Haider N, N. Nahar, et al. (2017): Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012. EcoHealth, 14, 244-258.
8. Shanta, I. S., M. A. Hasnat, N. Zeidner, E. S. Gurley, E. Azziz-Baumgartner, …. Haider N, et al. (2016): Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices. Transboundary and emerging diseases. 64(5), 1454-1464
7. Gerloff NA, Khan SU, Zanders N, Balish A, Haider N, Islam A, et al. (2016) Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh. PloS one, 11(3):e0152131.
6. Ghosh S, Chowdhury S, Haider N, Bhowmik RK, Rana MS, Marma ASP, et al (2016). Awareness of rabies and response to dog bites in a Bangladesh community. Veterinary Medicine and Science. ; 2(3): 161-169
5. Anthony SJ, Islam A, Johnson C, Navarrete-Macias I, Liang E, Jain K, …. Haider N, et al (2015). Non-random patterns in viral diversity. Nature communications. 2015;6:8147.
4. Gerloff, N. A., S. U. Khan, A. Balish, I. S. Shanta, N. Simpson, L. Berman, Haider. N, et al., (2014): Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh. Virology, 450-451, 297-307.
3. Khan, S. U., L. Berman, Haider. N, Gerloff N, Rahman MZ, B. Shu, et al. (2013): Investigating a crow die-off in January-February 2011 during the introduction of a new clade of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 into Bangladesh. Arch Virol, 159, 509-518
2. Islam, M. S., M. J. Hossain, A. Mikolon, S. Parveen, M. S. Khan, Haider. N, et al. (2013): Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study. Infect Ecol Epidemiol, 3, 21356.
1. Chakraborty A, Khan SU, Hasnat MA, Parveen S, . Haider N, et al. Anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009-2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg (2012), 86(4):703-710.
5. Petersen E, A Zumla, DS Hui, L Blumberg , SR Valdoleiros , L Amao , F Ntoumi , D Asogun , L Simonsen , N Haider , et al: Vaccination for monkeypox prevention in persons with high-risk sexual behaviours to control on-going outbreak of monkeypox virus clade 3., International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2022), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.06.047
4. Petersen E, Ntoumi F, Hui DS, ...... Haider N, Zumla A: Emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern Omicron (B.1.1.529) - highlights Africa's research capabilities, but exposes major knowledge gaps, inequities of vaccine distribution, inadequacies in global COVID-19 response and control efforts, International Journal of Infectious Diseases: 2021, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.11.040
3. Zumla A, Chakaya J, Khan M, Fatima R, … Haider N, Lipman M, .. Petersen E: World Tuberculosis Day 2021 Theme - 'The Clock is Ticking' - and the world is running out of time to deliver the United Nations General Assembly commitments to End TB due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Inf Dis (2021) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.046
2. Homaira N, Islam MS, Haider N. (2020): COVID-19 in the Rohingya refugee camps of Bangladesh: challenges and mitigation strategies. Glob Biosecurity. 1:1–4. http://doi.org/10.31646/gbio.84
1. Kapata, N., Ihekweazu, C., Ntoumi, F., Raji, T., Chanda-Kapata, P., Mwaba, P., …. Haider N., et al. (2020). Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future. Int. J. Infect. Dis., 93, 233–236 : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.049
Conferences oral presentations (2016-2021)
- 6th World One Health Congress (Virtual Edition, 2020), November 2nd, 2020: One Health and a blood meal – integrative and ecologically sensitive approaches to control mosquito-borne diseases, (Fellowship for oral presentation): https://worldonehealthcongress.org/wohc2020/lecture/580
- Epizone 11th Meeting, Paris, France, 18-21 September 2017: Microclimatic temperatures of Danish cattle farms: a better understanding of the variation in transmission potential of Schmallenberg virus
- The 3rd Conference on Neglected Vectors and Vector-borne diseases (EURNEGVEC), Zaragoza, Spain, May 24-26, 2016: Microclimatic temperature play a vital role in vector-borne disease transmission in the cool Scandinavian climate
- Homaira N, Islam MS, Hassan Z, Haider N, Sattar SM (2020): Contact tracing for Covid-19 in low-and middle-income countries, BMJ Opinion 2020 (6), June 5th 2020: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2020/06/05/contact-tracing-for-covid-19-in-low-and-middle-income-countries/
- Najmul Haider & Atik Ahsan: Understanding our dengue woes: Why did the country experience such a big outbreak last year? Dhaka Tribune: August 8th 2020: https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2020/08/08/op-ed-understanding-our-dengue-woes
- Najmul Haider, Nusrat Homaira and Rumi Ahmed Khan: From Animals to People: Why Spill-over events could cause the emergence of future pandemics: Dhaka Tribune: July 9th 2020: https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2020/07/09/op-ed-from-animals-to-people?fbclid=IwAR2MdCyPCxxsCTTPQfczr2hCnhu-3U0K75Lwe_mMNkdJl6igiy6fHL6kckY
- Nusrat Homaira, Najmul Haider: Dhaka Tribune: Where is Bangladesh’s research on Covid-19? June 15th 2020: https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2020/06/15/where-is-bangladesh-s-research-on-covid-19?fbclid=IwAR35UyMOgAu7_gNKbu5yopGXr8pBK7lFekhGuUhSaZRZeB0izSajxiaA-zc
- Sarah Khan, Nusrat Homaira, Najmul Haider and Md Zohorul Islam: Dhaka Tribune: OP-ED: The role of rapid antigen testing to combat Covid-19: June 24th 2020: https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2020/06/24/op-ed-the-role-of-rapid-antigen-testing-to-combat-covid-19?fbclid=IwAR2X6MVQbF-9wbDW-lOjaVTB2xif2adR5DpxW1uworOkXoqoPlJcDNOOhVc
The PANDORA programme is about understanding the socio-ecological drivers of emerging zoonosis and persistence of transboundary pathogens at human/environment/wildlife/domestic animal interfaces in contrasted landscapes as a means to trial novel veterinary, medical and preventive solutions. PANDORA is the core programme and other projects have arisen from this platform, including a Queen Mary’s led UKRI GCRF COVID Lockdown Project and an IDRC funded West-African One-Health Action for Mitigating Outbreaks project.