Department: Clinical Science and Services

Campus: Hawkshead

Clinical Groups: Equine Medicine

Bettina has been employed at the Royal Veterinary College since 2008 and is now an Associate Professor in Equine medicine.

Bettina's research interests are equine platelet function and coagulation as well as equine neonatology and all aspects of equine critical care.

Bettina graduated from The Free University of Berlin in 2001. Following a Dorothy Havemeyer fellowship at Tufts University, Bettina completed a rotating equine internship at the Marion duPont Equine Medical Center in Leesburg, VA and a large animal internal medicine and emergency and critical care residency (alternate track) at the University of Pennsylvania and has been a member of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care since 2005. After moving to the UK, Bettina attained her PhD, focusing on equine platelet and neutrophil function, from the University of London in 2008. Bettina has been employed at the Royal Veterinary College since 2008 and is now an Associate Professor in Equine medicine.

Bettina's research interests are equine platelet function and coagulation as well as equine neonatology and all aspects of equine critical care.

B Dunkel, EJ Knowles, Y-M Chang, NJ Menzies-Gow: Influence of endocrine disease on L-lactate concentrations in ponies. Accepted for publication J Vet Int Med Feb 2021

K Hanousek, M Salavati, B Dunkel: The impact of horse age, sex and number of riders on horse performance in British Eventing horse trials. J Equine Vet Sci Nov;94:103250. doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103250; 2020?

R Morgan, B Dunkel, S Spiro, E Beltran: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of a coup countercoup traumatic brain injury in a horse. Accepted for publication Equine Vet Educ November 2020

B Dunkel: Responsible antimicrobial use in critically ill adult horses. Accepted by Equine Veterinary Education June 2020

R Tallon, M McMillan, N Ho, B Dunkel: Presumed Grand mal seizure following caudal epidural administration of morphine and detomidine in a pony. Accepted by Equine Veterinary Education May 2020

B Dunkel: Science in brief: The role of the glycocalyx in critically ill patients with reference to the horse. Equine Vet J 52(6):790-793; 2020

B Dunkel, F Dodson, Y-M Chang, NM Slovis: Association between hyponatremia and neurological dysfunction in hospitalized foals. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 30(1):66-73; 2020

T McGilvray, D Berner, E Beltran, C Attipa, B Dunkel: Transient bilateral blindness associated with idiopathic pachymeningitis in a 22-year-old Irish Sports Horse. Equine Vet Educ 32(2):90-95; 2020

Dunkel B, Knowles EJ, Chang YM, Menzies-Gow NJ: Correlation between l-lactate and glucose concentrations and body condition score in healthy horses and ponies. J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Sep;33(5):2267-2271. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15587

E Jeanes, S Koll, C Dawson, B Dunkel, R Tetas, Roser: Rhomboid blepharoplasty and cryotherapy for the treatment of a squamous cell carcinoma on the lower eyelid in a horse. Accepted for publication in Clinical Case Reports Sept 2018

ANE Civello, B Dunkel, BA Summers, HM Martineau: Spinal cord compression in a horse due to a granular cell variant of neurofibroma. J Comp Pathol 157(4):303-307; 2017

B Dunkel, F Dodson, Y-M Chang, NM Slovis: Association between hyponatremia and neurological dysfunction in hospitalized foals. Accepted for publication in J Vet Emerg Crit Care Jan 2018

B Dunkel, A Ryan, E Haggett, E Knowles: Atypical myopathy in the South-East of England: Clinicopathological data and outcome in hospitalised horses. Accepted for publication in Equine Vet Educ Dec 2017

N Parkinson, H McKenzie III, M Barton, J Davis, B Dunkel, A Johnson, E MacDonald: Catheter-associated venous air embolism in hospitalized horses: 32 cases. Accepted for publication JVIM Nov 2017

B Dunkel, CJ Mason, YM Chang: Association between admission blood glucose and lactate concentrations in ponies and horses with gastrointestinal disease. Accepted for publication in J Vet Emerg and Crit Care August 2017

B Dunkel, A Buonpane, Y-M Chang: Differences in gastrointestinal lesions in different horse types. Vet Rec 16;181(11):291; 2017

B Dunkel, T Pfau, A Fiske-Jackson, KO Veres-Nyeki, H Fairhurst, K Jackson, Y-M Chang, DM Bolt: A pilot study on the effect of acupuncture treatment on objective and subjective gait parameters in horses. Vet Analg Anaesth 44(1):154-162; 2017

FM Molenaar, RJ Piercy, B Dunkel, N Manning, K English, M Stidworthy, NJ Masters: Equine atypical myopathy associated with sycamore seed ingestion in a Przewalski foal. Accepted for publication J Zoo Aquat Res Jan 4(2):105-108; 2016.

JE Tomlinson, E Byrne, N Pusterla, G Magdesian, HHilton, B McGorum, E Davis, A Schoster, L Arroyo, B Dunkel, H Carslake, RC Boston, AL Johnson: The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) in the treatment of fibrinous pleuropneumonia in horses: 25 cases (2007-2012). J Vet Inter Med 29(5):1403-9; 2015

B Dunkel, SA Jones, MJ Pinilla, AK Foote: Serum bile acid concentrations, histopathological features and short- and long-term survival in equine hepatic disease. J Vet Intern Med 29(2):644-50; 2015

B Dunkel and I Johns: Antimicrobial use in critically ill horses. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 25(1):89-100; 2015

B Dunkel, T Mair, CM Marr, J Carnwath, DM Bolt: Indications, complications and outcome of 95 horses undergoing repeat celiotomy within 14 days after the first colic surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 246(5):540-6; 2015

B Dunkel, KTT Corley: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet Educ 27(2):92–98; 2015

S Smith, RJ Naylor, E Knowles, T Mair, SD Cahalan, D Fews, B Dunkel:  Suspected acorn toxicity in nine horses. Equine Vet J 47(5):568-72; 2015

E Olsen, B Dunkel, WHJ Barker, EJT Finding, JD Perkins, TH Witte, LJ Yates, PH Andersen, K Baiker, RJ Piercy. Rater agreement on gait assessment during neurologiocal examination of horses. J Vet Int Med Dec 28(2):630-638; 2014

S Wilford, E Woodward, B Dunkel: Owners’ perception of the efficacy of Newmarket Bloodroot ointment in treating equine sacroids. Jul;55(7):683-6; 2014

B Dunkel, SA Wilford, NJ Parkinson, C Ward, P Smith, L Grahame, T Brazil, HC Schott II: Severe hypertriglyceridaemia in horses and ponies with endocrine disorders. Equine Veterinary Journal 46(1):118-122; 2014

S Wilford, R Weller, B Dunkel: Successful treatment of a horse with presumed parasitic encephalitis. Equine Vet Educ 25(12):601-604; 2013

B Dunkel, R Weller: A fresh approach to equine thoracic radiography. In Practice 35(10):589-596; 2013

B Dunkel, JE Kapff, RJ Naylor, R Boston: Blood lactate concentrations in ponies and miniature horses with gastrointestinal disease. Equine Veterinary Journal 45(6):666-670; 2013

B Dunkel: Platelet transfusion in thrombocytopaenic horses. Equine Veterinary Education 25(7):359-362; 2013

I Aktan, B Dunkel, FM Cunningham:Equine platelets inhibit E. coli growth and can be activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid although superoxide anion production does not occur and platelet activation is not associated with enhanced production by neutrophils. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 152(3-4):209-17; 2013

SA Durward-Akhurst, TS Mair, R Boston, B Dunkel: A comparison of two antimicrobial regimens on the prevalence of incisional infections after colic surgery. Vet Rec. 172(11):287-291; 2013

B Dunkel, KTT Corley, AL Johnson, TH Witte, M Leitch, CM Marr, R Weller: Pneumocephalus in five horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 45(3):367-71; 2013

E Finding, N Fletcher, C Avella, HA Volk, R Weller, B Dunkel, RJ Piercy: Standing CT and clinical progression of equine cholesterol granulomata. Veterinary Record 170(11):289, 2012

B Dunkel, S Giguère: The impact of peer-reviewed literature on equine neonatal care (Editorial). Equine Veterinary Journal 24(s41):5-6, 2012

B Dunkel: Pulmonary fibrosis and gammaherpesvirus infection in horses. Equine Veterinary Education 24(4):200–205, 2012

B Dunkel, DM Bolt, RK Smith, FM Cunningham: Stimulus-dependent release of tissue-regenerating factors by equine platelets. Equine Veterinary Journal 44(3):346-54, 2012

I Aktan, B Dunkel, FM Cunningham:IPKC isoenzymes in equine platelets and stimulus induced activation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 141(3-4):276-82, 2011

EJT Finding, E Eliashar, IC Johns, B Dunkel: Autologous blood transfusion following an allogenic transfusion reaction in a case of acute anaemia due to intra-abdominal bleeding. Equine Vet Educ, 23(7):339-342, 2011

B Dunkel, KP Chaney, BL Dallap-Schaer, A Pellegrini-Masini, TS Mair, R Boston: Putative intestinal hyperammonaemia in horses: 36 cases. Equine Veterinary Journal 43(2):133-140, 2011

B Dunkel, RW Sweeney, PL Habecker, AM Komaromy: Intraocular nematodiasis in a llama (Lama glama). Canadian Veterinary Journal 52:181–183, 2011

B Dunkel, DL Chan, R Boston, L Monreal: Association between hypercoagulability and decreased survival in horses with ischemic or inflammatory gastrointestinal disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24(6):1467-74, 2010

RJ Naylor, B Dunkel, S Dyson, M Paz-Penuelas, J Dobson, BA Summers: A retrobulbar syncitial meningioma as a cause of unilateral exophthalmus and blindness in a horse. Equine Vet Educ  22(10):503-510, 2010

B Dunkel: Intestinal hyperammonaemia in horses. Equine Vet Educ 22(7):340-345, 2010

B Dunkel, KJ Rickards, D Werling, CP Page, FM Cunningham: Regulation of equine platelet activation by phosphodiesterase and the effect of antigen challenge on platelet phosphodiesterase in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 71(5):534-540, 2010

RJ Naylor, B Dunkel: The treatment of diarrhea in the adult horse. Equine Vet Educ 21(9):494-504, 2009

B Dunkel, KJ Rickards, D Werling, CP Page, FM Cunningham: Neutrophil and platelet activation in equine recurrent airway obstruction is associated with increased neutrophil CD13 expression, but not platelet CD41/61 and CD62P or neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 131 (1-2):25-32, 2009

B Dunkel: Diagnosis and treatment of non-infectious and infectious foal diarrhoea. Pferdeheilkunde 24(4):529-539, 2008

B Dunkel: Supportive care for the critically ill neonatal foal. Pferdeheilkunde 24(4):540-548, 2008

FM Cunningham, B Dunkel: Equine recurrent airway obstruction and insect bite hypersensitivity: Understanding the diseases and uncovering possible new therapeutic approaches. Vet J 177(3):334-44, 2008

B Dunkel, KJ Rickards, CP Page, FM Cunningham: Phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in equine platelets and their influence on platelet adhesion. Am J Vet Res 68(12):1354-1360, 2007

PA Wilkins, CM Otto, JE Baumgardner, B Dunkel, D Bedenice, MR Paradis, F Staffieri, RS Syring, J Slack, S Grasso, G Pranzo. . J Vet Emerg Crit Care 17(4), 333-339, 2007

B Dunkel, KJ Rickards, CP Page, FM Cunningham: Platelet activation in ponies with airway inflammation. Equine Vet J 39(6):557-561, 2007

B Dunkel: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in foals. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice, 5:127-133, 2006

BW Rohrbach, BR Buchanan, JM Drake, FM Andrews, FT Bain, DT Byars, WV Bernard, MO Furr, MR Paradis, J Lawler, S Giguere, B Dunkel: Use of a multivariant model to estimate the probability of discharge in hospitalized foals that are 7 days or less of age. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 228(11):1748-1756, June 2006

B Dunkel, JE Palmer, KN Olson, RC Boston, PA Wilkins. Uroperitoneum in 32 foals: influence of intravenous fluid therapy, infection, and sepsis. J Vet Int Med 19(6), 889-893, 2005

B Dunkel, B Dolente,  RC Boston. Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 foals. Equine Vet J 37(5), 435-440, 2005

B Dunkel, AB Shokek, PA Wilkins: Congenital cystic polypoid rectal hamartoma in a newborn foal. Vet Pathol, 41(6):700-702, 2004

B Dunkel, F Del Piero, BM Kraus, JE Palmer, P Lin, PA Wilkins: Congenital cutaneous, oral and periarticular hemangiosarcoma in a 9 day-old Rocky Mountain horse. J Vet Int Med 18(2):252-255, 2004

B Dunkel, PA Wilkins: Nutrition in critically ill equine patients. Clinics of North America Equine Practice 20(1):107-126, 2004

B Dunkel, PA Wilkins: Infectious foal diarrhoea: pathophysiology, prevalence and diagnostics. Equine Vet Educ 16(2):94-101, 2004

B Dunkel, F Del Piero, KL Wotman, IC Johns, J Beech, PA Wilkins: Encephalitis due to West Nile flavivirus in three alpacas.  J Vet Int Med, 18(3):365-367, 2004

B Dunkel, HC Mckenzie III: Severe hypertriglyceridaemia in clinically ill horses: diagnosis, treatment and outcome. Equine Vet J 35(6):590-5, September 2003

Bettina is currently involved in treaching in the equine alimentary tract, neonatal and respiratory diseases.

Clinical interests are, similar to research interests, neonatal and foal diseases as well as respiratory diseases and critical care for adult and neonatal equine patients.

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