Department: Comparative Biomedical Sciences

Campus: Camden

Research Groups: Musculoskeletal Biology, CPCS (Research Programme)

Research Centres: MicroCT

Professor of Skeletal Dynamics. His research explores skeletal mechanobiology across diverse biological settings; from the role of embryo movement in the emergence of skeletal form, to how bones and joints respond to functional/ traumatic load in growth, adulthood and ageing.


Andrew was educated in London; he received an Applied Biology BSc. (Hons, 1984) and a PhD. in Biochemistry (1988) funded by a Special Wellcome Trust Award, under Joe Chayen, Helen Muir and Ita Askonas, at the world renown Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology.

His work in joint biology continued at UCL with Jo Edwards and Mike Bayliss (1990-93) where he was the first to characterise type B synovial lining cells based upon their extracellualr matrix synthesis. He undertook further postdoctoral studies with Lance Lanyon at RVC where set-up his own lab in 1995. His research has discovered that: nitric oxide is critical in bone mechano-adaptation, with a genetic component linked to growth, that joint formation is mechanodependent and that cartilage trauma susceptibility is not always linked to its vulnerability to osteoarthritis, which can itself be transcriptionally linked to NFkB activation. He disclosed distinct osteocyte/osteoblast inputs in load’s osteogenic output, and joined these to osteoporosis though spatial links to femoral neck bone turnover. Recent advances have focused on pioneering a non-invasive model of in vivo loading that allows tibial cortices and trabecular compartments to be simultaneously studied in wild type and transgenic species; the model has been extended for use in studying joint mechanics, osteoarthritis and responses to trauma. His group are also extending a UK legacy through their preservation and exploration of the spontaenous osteoarthritis in STR/Ort mice.

He has has published >140 original articles (h-index 41+) and is Board Member of the new Bloomsbury Centre for Skeletal Research, London Matrix Group, Executive Editor of Cell Biochemistry and Function, Executive Committee Member of International Society for Hyaluronan Sciences and Fellow of both The Royal Society of Biology (FRSB) and the Anatomical Society (FAS) and was Honorary Secretary of the British Society for Matrix Biology. He sits on several National and International Review panels including; Belgian Fund for Scientific research, Greek Governmental Agency, European Commission, 7th Research Framework Programme as a Recognised ERC expert and on the Panel of Experts for Arthritis Research-UK. His own research is currently funded by EU, BBSRC, Welcome Trust, Arthritis Research UK and The Leverhulme Trust.

Recent work has featured in several press releases:

Sulforodex as OA treatment - 

How to survive in space BBC -

Growth defect linked to OA -

Andrew's work straddles many inter-related themes in skeletal biology focussed on bone and joint mechanobiology.  

Studies on the role of early embryo movement in synovial joint development and in acquisition of skeletal proportions arew among the first to show that local mechanomodulatory infuences on cell: extracellular matrix interactions were pivotal in the emergence of skeletal form and growth. His group’s in vitro studies described how limb movements might directly influence cell behaviour to achieve joint cavitation, essential for articulation, establishing key roles for ERK/p38 kinases and factors otherwise 'classically' linked to inflammatory pathways. His group are now exploring how mechanobiology may regulate endochondral ossification processes, with a specific focus on identifying key targets for translation.

Work in his group also aims to define how developing and adult bone adapts to functional use. His work found that nitric oxide production was an early obligatory step in such mechanomodulation, with a genetic component linked to growth rate. His work also contributed to defining important differences between how osteocytes and osteoblasts might contribute to bone mechanoadaptive responses and how these fail in osteoporosis. His group have recently developed an elegant in vivo model for addressing these questions by controlled in vivo bone loading and is using state-of-the-art imaging to explore how bone shape and mass are biomechanically matched to function. Additionally, his group's new focus on the joint's osteochondral unit is a merging of much previous research.

  1. Blease A, Borges P, Curtinha M, Javaheri B, von Loga IS, Parisi I, Zarebska J, Pitsillides AA, Vincent T, Potter PK. Assessing osteoarthritis in mice. Current Protocols in Mouse Biology.

  2. Javaeri, B; Razi, H; Gohin, S; Wylie, S; Chang, Y M; Salmon, P; Lee, P D; Pitsillides, A A
    Lasting organ-level bone mechanoadaptation is unrelated to local strain
    Science Advances.  6(10): eaax8301.  (2020).

  3. Madi, K; Staines, K A; Bay, B K; Javaheri, B; Geng, H; Bodey, A J; Cartmell, S; Pitsillides, A A; Lee, P D
    In situ characterization of nanoscale strains in loaded whole joints via synchrotron X-ray tomography
    Nature Biomedical Engineering.  4:343-354 (2020).

  4. Kanakis, I; Liu, K; Poulet, B; Javaheri, B; Van‘t Hof, R J; Pitsillides, A A; Bou-Gharios, G.
    Targeted inhibition of aggrecanases prevents articular cartilage degradation and augments bone mass in the STR/Ort spontaneous model of osteoarthritis.
    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATOLOGY, 71;4:571-582. 2018

  5. Javaheri B, Carriero A, Wood M, De Souza R, Lee PD, Shefelbine S, Pitsillides AA. (2018) Transient peak-strain matching partially recovers the age-impaired mechanoadaptive cortical bone response. Scientific Reports. 8(1):6636. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25084-6.

  6. Novicky A, Caetano-Silva SP, Javaheri B, Pitsillides AA. (2018) Chapter 2: The Mechanics of Skeletal Development. In: Developmental Biology and Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering - 1st Edition. Elsevier Press. ISBN 9780128114674

  7. Núñez JA, Goring A, Javaheri B, Gomez-Nicola D, Hesse E, Pitsillides AA, Schneider P, Thurner PJ and Clarkin CE. (2018). Regional diversity in the murine cortical vascular network is revealed by synchrotron X-ray tomography and is amplified with age. European Cell and Materials. 35:281-299. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v035a20.

  8. Javaheri B, Razi H, Piles M, de Souza R, Chang Y-M, Maric-Mur I, Hopkinson M, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA. (2018) Sexually dimorphic tibia shape is linked to natural osteoarthritis in STR/Ort mice. Osteoarthritis Cartilage S1063-4584(18)31129-4. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2018.03.008

  9. Javaheri B, Caetano-Silva SP, Kanakis I, Bou-Gharios G, Pitsillides AA. (2018) The chondro-osseous continuum: is it possible to unlock the potential assigned within? Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 6:28.

  10. Carriero A, Pereira AF, Wilson AJ, Castagno S, Javaheri B, Pitsillides AA, Marenzana M, Shefelbine SJ. (2018) Spatial relationships between bone formation and mechanical stimulus within cortical bone: combining 3D fluorochrome mapping and poroelastic finite element modelling. Bone Reports. 8:72-80.

  11. Staines KA, Madi K, Javaheri B, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA. (2018) A computed microtomography method for understanding epiphyseal growth plate fusion. Frontiers in Materials, section Mechanics of Materials. Front. Mater. 4:48. doi: 10.3389/fmats.2017.00048

  12. Ikpegbu E, Basta L, Clements D, Vincent TL, Buttle DJ, Pitsillides AA, Staines KA, Farquharson C. (2018) FGF-2 promotes osteocyte differentiation through increased E11/podoplanin expression in vitro. Journal of Cell Physiology. 233(7):5334-5347. doi: 10.1002/jcp.26345.

  13. Mosey H, Núñez JA, Goring A, Clarkin CE, Staines KA, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA, Behzad Javaheri. (2017). Sost deficiency does not alter bone’s lacunar or vascular porosity in mice. Frontiers in Materials. 4:27. doi: 10.3389/fmats.2017.00027.

  14. De Souza R, Javaheri B, Collinson RS, Chenu C, Shefelbine SJ, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA. (2017). Prolonging disuse in aged mice amplifies cortical but not trabecular bones’ response to mechanical loading. J Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interact. 17(3):218-225

  15. Javaheri B, Poulet B, Aljazzar A, de Souza R, Piles M, Hopkinson M, Shervill E, Pollard A, Chan B, Chang Y-M, Orriss IR, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA. (2017). Stable sulforaphane protects against gait anomalies and modifies bone microarchitecture in the spontaneous STR/Ort model of osteoarthritis. Bone. 103:308-317

  16. Staines KA, Javaheri B, Hohenstein P, Fleming R, Hopkinson M, Buttle DJ, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. (2017) Hypomorphic conditional deletion of E11/Podoplanin reveals a role in osteocyte dendrite elongation. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 232(11):3006-3019

  17. Chadwick KP, Shefelbine SJ, Pitsillides AA, Hutchinson JR. (2017) Finite element modelling of the patellar tendon of an ostrich (Struthio camelus). Royal Society Open Science. 4(6):170133.

  18. Smith SJ, Emery R, Pitsillides AA, Clarkin CE, Mahajan S. (2017) Detection of early osteogenic commitment in primary cells using Raman spectroscopy. Analyst. 142(11):1962-1973.

  19. Boyde A, Staines KA, Javaheri B, Millan J-L, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. (2017) A distinctive patchy osteomalacia characterises Phospho1 deficient mice. J Anatomy. 231(2):298-308

  20. Miller B, Spevak L, Lukashova L, Javaheri B, Pitsillides AA, Boskey A, Bou-Gharios Carriero A. (2017). Altered bone mechanics, architecture and composition in the skeleton of TIMP-3 deficient mice. Calcified Tissue International. doi: 10.1007/s00223-017-0248-5. [Epub ahead of print]

  21. Pollard AS, Charlton BG, JR Hutchinson, Gustafsson T, McGonnell I, Timmons JA & Pitsillides AA (2017).Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement. Scientific Reports. 7:41926. doi: 10.1038/srep41926.

  22. Suswillo R, Javaheri B, Rawlinson SCF, Dowthwaite GP, Lanyon LE and Pitsillides AA. (2017) Strain uses gap junctions to reverse stimulation of osteoblast proliferation by osteocytes. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 35(1): 56–65.

  23. Berwick DC, Javaheri B, Wetzel A, Hopkinson M, Nixon-Abell J, Grannó S, Pitsillides AA and Harvey K. (2017) Pathogenic LRRK2 variants are gain-of-function mutations that enhance LRRK2-mediated repression of β-catenin signaling. Molecular Neurodegeneration. 12:9. DOI: 10.1186/s13024-017-0153-4

  24. Al-Jazzar A, Javaheri B, Prideaux M, Boyde A, Scudamore CL, Cherifi C, Hay E, Hopkinson M, Boyd M, Cohen-Solal M, Farquharson C, Pitsillides AA. (2016) DMP1 promoter-driven diphtheria toxin receptor transgene expression directs unforeseen effects in multiple tissues. Int J Mol Sci. 18(1). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/ijms18010029.

  25. Staines KA, Poulet B, Wentworth DN, Pitsillides AA. (2016) The STR/ort mouse model of spontaneous osteoarthritis – an update. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Dec 11. pii: S1063-4584(16)30478-2.

  26. Pollard A.S, Boyd S, McGonnell I.M, Pitsillides A.A. (2016) The role of embryo movement in the development of the furcula. J Anatomy. doi: 10.1111/joa.12571. [Epub ahead of print]

  27. Poulet B, Liu K, Plumb D, Vo P, Shah M, Staines K, Sampson A, Nakamura H, Nagase H, Carriero A, Shefelbine S, Pitsillides AA and Bou-Gharios G (2016). Overexpression of TIMP-3 in chondrocytes produces transient reduction in growth plate length but permanently reduces adult bone quality and quantity. Plos One 11(12):e0167971. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167971.

  28. Javaheri B, Hopkinson M, Poulet B, Pollard AS, Shefelbine SJ, Chang Y, Francis-West P, Bou-Gharios G, Pitsillides AA. (2016) Deficiency and also transgenic overexpression of Timp-3 lead to compromised bone mass and architecture in vivo. PLoS ONE. 11(8):e0159657.

  29. Pollard AS, Pitsillides AA and Portugal SJ. (2016) Validating a non-invasive technique for monitoring embryo movement in ovo. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 89(4):331-9.

  30. Hodges SJ, Pitsillides AA, Ytrebø LM and Soper RJ. Anti-inflammatory Actions of Vitamin K. Book chapter in Vitamin K2, ISBN 978-953-51-4691-9. 

  31. Gohin S, Carriero A, Chenu C, Pitsillides AA, Arnett TR, Marenzana M (2016) The anabolic action of intermittent parathyroid hormone on cortical bone depends partly on its ability to induce nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation in BALB/c mice. Cell Biochemistry and Function. 34:52-62.

  32. Staines KA, Madi K, Mirczuk SM, Parker S, Burleigh A, Poulet B, Hopkinson M, Bodey AJ, Fowkes RC, Farquharson C, Lee PD, Pitsillides AA. (2016) Endochondral growth defect and deployment of transient chondrocyte behaviours underlie osteoarthritis onset in a natural murine model. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 68(4):880-91. doi: 10.1002/art.39508.

  33. Staines KA, Prideaux M, Buttle DJ, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. (2016) E11/podoplanin protein stabilization through inhibition of the proteasome promotes osteocyte differentiation in murine in vitro models. Journal of Cellular Physiology. 231:1392-404. doi: 10.1002/jcp.25282.

  34. Regnault S, Jones MEH, Pitsillides AA, Hutchinson JR.(2016) Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). J Anatomy. 228(5):864-76. doi: 10.1111/joa.12435.

  35. Zaman G, Staines K, Farquharson C, Newton PT, Dudhia J, Chenu C, Pitsillides AA, Dhoot GK. (2016) Expression of Sulf1 and Sulf2 in cartilage, bone and endochondral fracture healing. Histochemistry and Cell Biology 145(1):67-79. doi: 10.1007/s00418.

  36. Javaheri B, Carriero A, Staines KA, Chang Y-M, Houston DA, Oldknow KJ, Millan J, Bassir Kazeruni N, Salmon P, Shefelbine S, Farquharson C, Pitsillides AA. (2015). Phospho1 deficiency transiently modifies bone architecture yet produces consistent modification in osteocyte differentiation and vascular porosity with ageing Bone 81:277-91. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.07.035.

  37. Pereira AF, Javaheri b, Pitsillides AA, Shefelbine SJ (2015). Predicting cortical bone adaptation in the mouse tibia. Royal Society Interfac. 12(110):0590. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0590.

  38. Christiansen BA, Guilak F, Lockwood KA, Olson SA, Pitsillides AA, Sandell LJ, van der Meulen M, Haudenschild DR. (2015) Non-Invasive Mouse Models of Post Traumatic Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 23(10):1627-38. DOI:

  39. Staines KA, Prideaux M, Jones ER, Riley GP, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. (2015) Transcriptional profiling of MMP and TIMP expression during osteoblast to osteocyte transition. Gene Expression Patterns. 18(1-2):29-36. doi:10.1016/j.gep.2015.04.004

  40. Akbareian S, Pitsillides AA, Macharia R, McGonnell I. (2015) Holes in the head: classifying the development of cranial foramina that form in the base of the skull. J Anat. 226(6): 560–574.

  41. Shah M, Gburcik V, Reilly P, Sankey RA, Emery RJ, Clarkin CE, Pitsillides AA. (2015) Local origins impart conserved bone type-related differences in human osteoblast behaviour. Eur Cell Mater. Journal. 29:155-75; discussion 175-6.

  42. Poulet B, de Souza R, Kent AV, Saxon L, Barker O, Wilson A, Chang Y-M, Cake M, Pitsillides AA. (2015) Intermittent applied mechanical loading induces subchondral bone thickening that may be intensified locally by contiguous articular cartilage lesions. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 23(6):940-8. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2015.01.012

  43. Regnault S, Pitsillides AA and Hutchinson JR. (2014) Structure, ontogeny and evolution of the patellar tendon in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and other palaeognath birds. PeerJ 23;2:e711. doi: 10.7717/peerj.711

  44. Sherwood J, Bertrand J, Nalesso G, Poulet B, Pitsillides A, Brandolini L, Karystinou A, De Bari C, Luyten FP, Pitzalis C, Pap T, Dell'Accio F. (2014) A homeostatic function of CXCR2 signalling in articular cartilage. Ann Rheum Dis. 74(12):2207-15. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205546.

  45. Soper RJ, Oguz C, Emery R, Pitsillides AA and Hodges SJ. (2014). Vitamin K catabolite inhibition of ovariectomy-induced bone loss: structure-activity relationship considerations. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 58(8):1658-66. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201400063

  46. Carriero A, Abela L, Pitsillides AA and Shefelbine SJ. (2014) Ex vivo determination of bone tissue strains for an in vivo mouse tibial loading model. Journal of Biomechanics 47:2490-7.

  47. Poulet B, Souza R, Knight C, Wilson A, Bevan S, Chang Y, Pitsillides AA. (2014) Gait analysis in Str/ort mice reveals modified paw area as a predictor of natural osteoarthritis progression. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 66 (7): 1832–1842.

  48. Poulet B, Westerhof TA, Hamilton RW, Shefelbine SJ, Pitsillides AA. (2013) . 21(5):756-63.

  49. Oldknow K, Seebacher J, Pitsillides AA, O’Shaughnessy P, Schneyer A, Mukherjee A. (2013) FSTL-3 silencing of TGFb is essential for testicular size and aging. Endocrinology, 154(3):1310-20. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1886.

  50. Poulet B, Ulici V, Stone TC, Pead M, Gburcik V, Constantinou E, Palmer DB, Beier F, Timmons JA and Pitsillides AA. (2012) Time-series transcriptional profiling yields new perspectives on susceptibility to osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 64(10): 3256-3266.

  51. Prideaux M, Loveridge N, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. Extracellular matrix mineralization promotes E11/gp38 glycoprotein expression and drives osteocytic differentiation. PlosOne (2012) 2012;7(5):e36786

  52. Perry K, Haresign W, Wathes DC, Pitsillides AA, Khalid M. (2012) Cervical expression of hyaluronan synthases varies with the stage of the estrous cycle in the ewe. . 77(6):1100-10.   

  53.  Das-Gupta  V, Williamson RA & Pitsillides AA. (2012). Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein is not necessary for Mechanical Strain-induced Nitric oxide production by cultured Osteoblasts. Osteoporosis International 23(11):2635-47IF 4.9     

  54. Hutchinson JR, Delmer C, Miller CE, Hildebrandt T, Pitsillides AA & Boyde A. (2011) From flat foot to fat foot: The structure, ontogeny, function and evolution of elephant “sixth toes”. Science. 334(6063):1699-703.

  55. Pitsillides AA and Beier F. (2011) Cartilage biology in osteoarthritis--lessons from developmental biology. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 7(11):654-63

  56. Clarkin CE, Allen S, Wheeler-Jones CP, Bastow ER and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Reduced chondrogenic matrix accumulation by 4-methylumbelliferone reveals the potential for selective targeting of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Matrix Biology 30(3):163-8. Impact factor 3.6

  57. Clarkin CE, Allen S, Kuiper NJ, Wheeler BT, Wheeler-Jones CPD and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is sufficient to modulate hyaluronan production and release, control sulphated GAG Synthesis and promote chondrogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 226(3):749-61.

  58. Poulet B, Hamilton RW, Shefelbine S and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Characterising a novel and adjustable non-invasive murine knee joint loading model. Arthritis & Rheumatism.

  59.  Sztefek P, Vanleene M, Olsson R, Collinson R, Pitsillides AA, Shefelbine S. (2010) Using digital image correlation to determine bone surface strains during loading and after adaptation of the mouse tibia. J Biomech. 43(4):599-605

  60. Kershaw-Young CM, Khalid M, McGowan MR, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Pitsillides AA, Scaramuzzi RJ. (2010). The effect of estradiol on COX-2, EP2 and EP4 mRNA expression and the extracellular matrix in the cervix of the hypogonadotrophic, ovariectomised ewe. Theriogenology. 15;73(5):620-8

  61. Kershaw-Young CM, Khalid M, McGowan MR, Pitsillides AA, Scaramuzzi RJ. (2009). mRNA expression of EP2 and EP4 and the changes in gycosaminoglycans in the sheep cervix at different stages of the oestrous cycle. Theriogenology 72(2):251-61.

  62. Rawlinson SCF, Murray DH, Mosley JR, Wright CDP, Bredl JC, Saxon LK, Loveridge N, Leterrier C, Constantin P, Farquharson C and Pitsillides AA. (2009) Genetic selection for fast growth rate generates bone architecture characterised by enhanced periosteal expansion and limited consolidation of the cortices but a diminution in the early responses to mechanical loading. Bone. 45(2): 357–366

  63. MacRae VE, Horvat S, Pells S, Dale H, Collinson RS, Pitsillides AA, Ahmed SF & Farquharson C.(2009) Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling-2 (SOCS2) in the growing skeleton: a role in mediating the growth inhibitory effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines? J Cell Physiol. 218(2):276-84

  64. Clarkin CE, Garonna E, Pitsillides AA and Wheeler-Jones CP. (2008) Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: a negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication? Experimental Cell Research 314(17):3152-61

  65. Shawcross DL, Wright GA, Stadlbauer V, Hodges SJ, Davies NA, Wheeler-Jones C, Pitsillides AA, Jalan R. (2008) Ammonia impairs neutrophil phagocytic function in liver disease. Hepatology 48(4):1202-12. IF 10.34

  66. Chen Y, Leask A, Abraham DJ, Pala D, Shiwen X, Khan K, Liu S, Carter DE, Wilcox-Adelman S, Goetinck P, Denton CP, Black CM, Pitsillides AA, Sarraf CE, Eastwood M. (2008) Heparan sulfate-dependent ERK activation contributes to the overexpression of fibrotic proteins and enhanced contraction by scleroderma fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 58(2):577-585 IF 7.751

  67. Simon DWN, Clarkin CE, Das-Gupta V, Rawlinson SCF, Emery RJ, Pitsillides AA. (2008) Identifying the cellular basis for reimplantation failure in rotator cuff repair. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. ():.

  68. Clarkin CE, Emery RJ, Pitsillides AA & Wheeler-Jones CPD (2008) Evaluation of VEGF-mediated signalling in primary human cells reveals a paracrine action for VEGF in osteoblast-mediated crosstalk to endothelial cells. Journal of Cell Physiology. :.

  69. Dudhia J, Scott C, Draper E, Pitsillides AA & Smith RK (2007) Aging promotes tendon failure by a mechanically-induced active process requiring MMP activity. Ageing Cell. 6:54756.

  70. Lewthwaite JC, Coates ARM, Poole S, Clarkin CE, Lawrence RA, Wheeler-Jones C, Pitsillides AA, Singh M & Henderson B. (2007). Highly homologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 60 proteins with differential CD14 dependencies stimulate cytokine production by human monocytes through cooperative activation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. International Immunopharmacology. 7(2):230-40.

  71. Taylor SE, Weaver MP, Pitsillides AA, Clarkin C,Wheeler BT, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Shaw DJ, Smith RKW. (2007). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis of the tarsometatarsal joint compared to a control population. Equine Veterinary Journal 38(6):502-7.

  72. Zaman G, Jessop HL, Muzylak M, Souza R, Pitsillides AA, Price JS and Lanyon LE. (2006) Osteocytes use estrogen receptor alpha to respond to strain but their ERalpha content is regulated by estrogen. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 21(8):1297-1306.

  73. Davies NA, Hodges SJ, Pitsillides AA, Mookerjee RP, Jalan R, Mehdizadeh S. (2006) Hepatic guanylate cyclase activity is decreased in a model of cirrhosis: A quantitative cytochemistry study. FEBS Letters. 580:2123-2128.

  74. Lewthwaite JC, Bastow ER, Lamb KJ, Blenis J, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Pitsillides AA. (2006) A mechano-modulatory role for p38 MAPK in regulating MEK-ERK pathway activation in embryonic joint articular surface cells Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281(16):11011-8.

  75. Kavanagh E, Church VL, Osborne AC, Lamb KJ, Archer CW, Francis-West PH, Pitsillides AA.(2006). Differential Regulation of GDF-5 and FGF-2/4 by Immobilisation in ovo exposes Distinct Roles in Joint Formation. Developmental Dynamics. 235:826-834.

  76. de Souza, RL, Pitsillides AA, Lanyon L, Skerry TM, Chenu C. (2005) Sympathetic nervous system does not mediate the load-induced cortical new bone formation. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 20(12):2159-68.

  77. de Souza, RL, Matsuura M, Eckstein F, Rawlinson SCF, Lanyon L & Pitsillides AA. (2005) Non-invasive model of axial loading of the mouse tibia discloses load-induced increases in cortical bone formation and modification in trabecular bone organisation. Bone 37(6):810-8

  78. Bastow E, Lamb KJ, Osborne A, Kavanagh E, Lewthwaite JC, Wheeler-Jones CPD & Pitsillides AA. (2005). Selective activation of the MEK-ERK pathway is regulated by mechanical stimuli in forming joints and promotes pericellular matrix formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280(12):11749-58.

  79. Caballero-AlÌas AM, Loveridge N, Pitsillides AA, Parker M, Kaptoge S, Lyon A & Reeve J. (2005). Osteocytic Expression of Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in the Femoral Neck Cortex: A Case-Control Study of Intracapsular Hip Fracture. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 20(2):268-73.

  80. Chambler AFW, Emery RJH & Pitsillides AA. (2004) Quantitative cytochemical evidence for local increases in bone turnover at the coracoacromial ligament’s acromial enthesis. Journal of Rheumatology. 31(11):2216-25.

  81. Caballero-Alías AM, Loveridge N, Lyon A, Das-Gupta V, Pitsillides AA, and Reeve J. (2004). NOS isoforms in adult human osteocytes: multiple pathways of NO regulation? Calcified Tissue International 75(1):78-84.

  82. Jessop HL, Suswillo RFL, Rawlinson SCF, Zaman G, Lee K, Das-Gupta V, Pitsillides AA & Lanyon LE. (2004) Osteoblast-like cells from estrogen receptor knockout mice have deficient responses to mechanical strain. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 19:938-46.

  83. Hickery M, Bayliss MT, Dudhia J, Lewthwaite JC, Edwards JCW & Pitsillides AA. (2003) Age-related changes in the response of human articular cartilage to rhIL-1a and rhTGFb; chondrocytes exhibit a diminished sensitivity to TGFb. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278(52):53063-71.

  84. Pitsillides AA, Das-Gupta V, Simon D, Rawlinson SC. (2003) Methods for analyzing bone cell responses to mechanical loading using in vitro monolayer and organ culture models. Methods Mol Med. 80:399-422.

  85. Lamb KJ, Lewthwaite JC, Lin J-P, Simon D, Kavanagh E, Wheeler-Jones C, Pitsillides AA. (2003) Diverse fixed positional deformities and bone growth restraint provoked by flaccid paralysis in embryonic chicks. International Journal Experimental Pathology 84:191-9.

  86. Dowthwaite GP, Flannery CR, Flannelly J, Lewthwaite JC, Archer CW & Pitsillides AA. (2003) A mechanism underlying the movement requirement for synovial joint cavitation. Matrix Biol. 22(4):311-322

  87. Chambler AFW, Pitsillides AA & Emery RJH. (2003) Acromial Spur Formation in patients with rotator cuff disease. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 12(4):314-21

  88. Jessop HL, Rawlinson SCF, Pitsillides AA & Lanyon LE. (2002) Mechanical strain and fluid movement both activate extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in osteoblast-like cells but via different signaling pathways. Bone. 31(1):186-94

  89. Osborne AC, Lamb KJ, Lewthwaite JC, Dowthwaite GP, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Pitsillides AA. (2002) Short-term rigid and flaccid paralysis diminish growth of embryonic chick limbs and abrogate joint cavity formation but differentially preserve pre-cavitated joints. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions 2(5):448-456.

  90. Wibulswas A, Croft D, Pitsillides AA, Bacarese-Hamilton I, McIntyre P, Genot E and Kramer IJ. (2002) Epitopes CD44v3 and v6 are instrumental in the invasive behaviour of fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from rheumatoid arthritic joints. Arthritis & Rheumatism 46(8):2059-2064.

  91. Kavanagh E, Osborne AC, Ashhurst DE & Pitsillides AA. (2002) Keratan sulphate epitopes exhibit a conserved distribution during joint development that remains undisclosed on the basis of GAG charge density. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry 50(8):1039-47

  92. Loveridge N, Fletcher S, Power J, Caballero-Alias AM, Das-Gupta V, Rushton N, Parker M, Reeve J, Pitsillides AA. (2002) Patterns of osteocytic endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the femoral neck cortex: differences between cases of intracapsular hip fracture and controls. Bone 30(6):866-71

  93. Cheng MZ, Rawlinson SCF, Pitsillides AA, Zaman G. Mohan S, Baylink DJ & Lanyon LE. (2002) Human osteoblasts’ proliferative responses to strain and 17b-estradiol are mediated by the estrogen receptor and the receptor for IGF-1. Journal Bone & Mineral Res 17: 593-602.

  94. Pitsillides AA, Skerry TM & Edwards JCW. (1999) The effect of immobilisation on the maintenance of hyaluronan concentrations in diarthrodial joints: alterations in synovial lining cellular phenotype. Rheumatology 38(11): 1108-1112.

  95. Dowthwaite GP, Ward AC, Suswillo RFL, Flanelly J, Archer CW & Pitsillides AA. (1999) Effect of mechanical strain on the metabolism of hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding protein expression in embryonic chick fibrocartilage cells. Matrix Biology. 18: 523-532.

  96. Grieve DJ, Fletcher S, Pitsillides AA, Botham KM & Elliot J. (1999) Effects of oral propylthiouricil treatment on nitric oxide production in rat aorta. British Journal of Pharmacology. 127: 1-8.

  97. Pitsillides AA, Rawlinson SCF, Mosley JR & Lanyon LE. (1999) Genetic selection for enhanced growth at the expense of skeletal adaptability to loading. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 14 (6): 980-987.

  98. Zaman G*, Pitsillides AA*, Rawlinson SCF, Suswillo RFL, Mosley JR, Cheng MZ, Platts L, Hukkanen M, Polak JM, & Lanyon LE. (1999) Mechanical strain stimulates nitric oxide production by rapid activation of eNOS in osteocytes. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 14(7): 1123-1131. (* denotes equal contribution)

  99. Rawlinson SCF, Zaman G, Mosley J, Pitsillides AA & Lanyon LE. (1998) Heme-oxygenase isozymes in bone: induction of HO-1 mRNA following physiological levels of mechanical loading in vivo. Bone. 23(5): 433-436.

  100. Dowthwaite GP, Edwards JCW & Pitsillides AA. (1998) An essential role for the interaction between hyaluronan and hyaluronan-binding proteins during joint development. Journal of Hi

Andrew teaches in Veterinary and BSc degrees. He led module on 'Advanced Skeletal Pathobiology' and 'The Head' for many years, with lectures on head, face, tooth, eye and ear embryology and anatomy, as well as gross dissection and related histology. In line with his research, he also teaches: extracellular matrix biology, cell junctions and basal lamina, as well as development, structure/function of bone, cartilage and joints. His Advanced Skeletal Pathobiology module for final year BSc students was acclaimed for its use of innovative assessment methods.

He also guest lectures at UCL for Intercalated BSc and MSc degrees, and for MSc degrees at Imperial and Oxford Universities. He has served as an External examiner for several courses at UCL and QMUL, London. His administrative responsibilities have been numerous and varied and Chaired RVC's Teaching Quality Committee for several years, which reports directly to the Academic Board at the RVC. He is currently a member of RVC's Central Council.

Prof Pitsillides retains strong aspirations to forge direct links between the Skeletal Biology Group and RVC's Orthopaedic clinicians. This has recently shown merit through clinical links created with Sheffield University and The Royal National Orthopaedic Centre, Stanmore, UCL.

  •  Arthritis Research UK supporter event

  •  Mentorship sessions (OARSI, World Congress on Osteoarthritis)

    • Philadelphia, USA (2013)
    • Paris, France (2014)
    • Seattle, USA (2015)
  • Royal Society of Biology, Annual Awards Ceremony, October 2014

  • Royal Society of Biology/BBSRC, Parliamentary Reception with MPs, 2014

  • Press Releases

1. SULFORODEXTM as treatment for OA,








How to survive in space BBC

- BBC Four, 28-30 December, 2015

- Royal Institution,

- .

- Sky News about the Lectures, Health reporter Thomas Moore


Growth defect linked to OA,

Research selected for Diamond Light Source 2015/16 Annual Review (showcasing ‘Endochondral growth defect and deployment of transient chondrocyte behaviours underlie osteoarthritis onset in a natural murine model’ published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, 2015); a science overview used by programme managers and decision makers in funding agencies as a guide to the top research taking place at the facility.

Edition viewed here:

- Release, June 2016: Diamond unveils plans for UK to maintain position on world science stage

- Holly Kernot. July 2016. Work by RVC Skeletal Biology Group showcased. Vet Times

-  diamond-light-source-annual-review-launch


Night at the RVC and Royal Institution ‘Lates’


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