Department: Comparative Biomedical Sciences

Campus: Camden

Research Groups: Musculoskeletal Biology

Andrew is a Professor of Skeletal Dynamics. His research aims to establish how joints develop in the embryonic limb and how skeletal tissues, adapt their structure to changes in their mechanical environment.

Andrew is a Professor of Skeletal Dynamics. Educated in London, he received an Applied Biology BSc. Degree (Hons, 1984) and a PhD. in Biochemistry (1988) funded by a Special Wellcome Trust Award under Joe Chayen at the world renown Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology.

His work in joint biology continued at UCL School of Medicine with Jo Edwards (1990-93, and Mike Bayliss, Division of Biochemistry, Kennedy Inst. of Rheumatology led by Tim Hardingham) during which time he characterised synovial lining cells, for the first time, on the basis of their role in the synthesis of hyaluronan. Further postdoctoral studies with Lance Lanyon at the RVC disclosed a novel role for nitric oxide in bone cells’ response to mechanical stimuli; this time also saw him establish new relationships between growth and bone adaptation. In 1995, he set-up his own lab that is focused on identifying the mechanisms by which cell-matrix interactions are developmentally established, with a focus on how joints form and how embryonic, growing and adult skeletal tissues adapt to changes in the mechanical demands placed upon them. Recent developments have focused on the development and use of a non-invasive model of in vivo loading that allows tibial cortices and trabecular compartments to be simultaneously studies in wild type and transgenic mouse species – the model has also been extended for use in studying joint mechanics, osteoarthritis and responses to trauma.

He is currently Board Member of local and National Societies: London Matrix Group and honorary secretary of the British Society for Matrix Biology, Executive Editor of the Cell Biochemistry and Function and editorship of other journals and on the Membership Committee Executive and life member of the International Society for Hyaluronan Sciences. He sits on several National and International Review panels including; Belgian Fund for Scientific research, Greek Governmental Agency, European Commission , 7th Research Framework Programme as a Recognised ERC expert and ERC Starting Grants, External expert for the German Medical Society Excellence Initiative Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative Therapies and on the Arthritis Research-UK Biomedical Sciences Panel. His own research is currently funded by the BBSRC, Welcome Trust, Arthritis Research UK and The Anatomical society.
 

Andrew's work has two inter-related themes: joint cavity formation and skeletal adaptation to mechanical stimuli.

The first concerns the initial development of synovial joints in the embryo. His group have shown that local increases in extracellular hyaluronan (HA) and interaction with cell-associated HA-binding proteins are essential in this process. They have also determined that embryo movement is pivotal. His group’s in vitro studies have described how limb movements might directly influence cell behaviour to achieve joint cavity formation, essential for limb development and function. More recently, they have shown key roles for specific kinases (ERK and p38) in mechanotransduction and in regulating HA production during joint formation. They are now exploring how HA synthesis may be regulated and are developing a new model for osteoarthritis in which these findings can be translated more fully.

The second theme aims to define how developing and adult bone adapts to functional use, and how growth modifies these mechanisms. His work has found that one of the earliest obligatory steps involves enhanced nitric oxide production, which appears to have a genetic component linked to growth rate. He has also made major contributions to defining important differences between how osteocytes and osteoblasts might contribute to the co-ordination of such responses. These investigations relate very closely to osteoporosis; the desire to prevent loss and to facilitate increases in bone formation underpins these studies. His group have recently developed an elegant in vivo model for addressing these questions by controlled loading of the tibia and fibula.

1.  Poulet B, Ulici V, Stone TC, Pead M, Gburcik V, Constantinou E, Palmer DB, Beier F, Timmons JA and Pitsillides AA. (2012) Time-series transcriptional profiling yields new perspectives on susceptibility to osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 64 (10): 3256 - 3266.

2. Prideaux M, Loveridge N, Pitsillides AA, Farquharson C. (2012) Extracellular matrix mineralization promotes E11/gp38 glycoprotein expression and drives osteocytic differentiation. PlosOne. 7 (5): e36786.

3. Perry K, Haresign W, Wathes DC, Pitsillides AA, Khalid M. (2012) Cervical expression of hyaluronan synthases varies with the stage of the estrous cycle in the ewe. Theriogenology. 77(6):1100-10.

4. Das-Gupta V, Williamson RA & Pitsillides AA. (2012). Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein is not necessary for Mechanical Strain-induced Nitric oxide production by cultured Osteoblasts. Osteoporosis International IF 4.9

5. Pitsillides AA, Rawlinson SC. (2012) Using cell and organ culture models to analyze responses of bone cells to mechanical stimulation. Methods Mol Biol. 816:593-619.

6. Hutchinson JR, Delmer C, Miller CE, Hildebrandt T, Pitsillides AA & Boyde A. (2011) From flat foot to fat foot: The structure, ontogeny, function and evolution of elephant “sixth toes”. Science. 334(6063):1699-703.

7. Pitsillides AA and Beier F. (2011) Cartilage biology in osteoarthritis – lessons from developmental biology. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 7(11), 654-663.

8. Clarkin CE, Allen S, Wheeler-Jones CP, Bastow ER and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Reduced chondrogenic matrix accumulation by 4-methylumbelliferone reveals the potential for selective targeting of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Matrix Biology 30(3):163-8. Impact factor 3.6

9. Clarkin CE, Allen S, Kuiper NJ, Wheeler BT, Wheeler-Jones CPD and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is sufficient to modulate hyaluronan production and release, control sulphated GAG Synthesis and promote chondrogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 226(3):749-61.

10. Poulet B, Hamilton RW, Shefelbine S and Pitsillides AA. (2011) Characterising a novel and adjustable non-invasive murine knee joint loading model. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2011 63(1):137-47.

11. Wheeler-Jones CP, Farrar CE, Pitsillides AA. Targeting hyaluronan of the endothelial glycocalyx for therapeutic intervention. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 11(9):997-1006.

12. Sztefek P, Vanleene M, Olsson R, Collinson R, Pitsillides AA, Shefelbine S. (2010) Using digital image correlation to determine bone surface strains during loading and after adaptation of the mouse tibia. J Biomech. 43(4):599-605

13. Kershaw-Young CM, Khalid M, McGowan MR, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Pitsillides AA, Scaramuzzi RJ. (2010). The effect of estradiol on COX-2, EP2 and EP4 mRNA expression and the extracellular matrix in the cervix of the hypogonadotrophic, ovariectomised ewe. Theriogenology. 15;73(5):620-8

14. Kershaw-Young CM, Khalid M, McGowan MR, Pitsillides AA, Scaramuzzi RJ. (2009). The mRNA expression of EP2 and EP4 and the changes in gycosaminoglycans in the sheep cervix at different stages of the oestrous cycle. Theriogenology 72(2):251-61.

15. Rawlinson SCF, Murray DH, Mosley JR, Wright CDP, Bredl JC, Saxon LK, Loveridge N, Leterrier C, Constantin P, Farquharson C and Pitsillides AA. (2009) Genetic selection for fast growth rate generates bone architecture characterised by enhanced periosteal expansion and limited consolidation of the cortices but a diminution in the early responses to mechanical loading. Bone. 45(2): 357–366

16. MacRae VE, Horvat S, Pells S, Dale H, Collinson RS, Pitsillides AA, Ahmed SF & Farquharson C. (2009)  Increased Bone Mass, Altered Trabecular Architecture and Modified Growth Plate Organization in the Growing Skeleton of SOCS2 Deficient Mice. J Cell Physiol. 218(2):276-84

17. Clarkin CE, Garonna E, Pitsillides AA and Wheeler-Jones CP. (2008) Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: a negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication? Experimental Cell Research 314(17):3152-61

18. CHEN, Y., LEASK, A., ABRAHAM, D. J., PALA, D., SHIWEN, X., KHAN, K., LIU, S., CARTER, D. E., WILCOX-ADELMAN, S., GOETINCK, P., DENTON, C. P., BLACK, C. M., PITSILLIDES, A. A., SARRAF, C. E. & EASTWOOD, M. (2008) Heparan sulfate-dependent ERK activation contributes to the overexpression of fibrotic proteins and enhanced contraction by scleroderma fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 58, 577-585. PubMed ID 18240216 [IF 7.751]

19. SIMON, D. W., CLARKIN, C. E., DAS-GUPTA, V., RAWLINSON, S. C., EMERY, R. J. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2008) Identifying the cellular basis for reimplantation failure in repair of the rotator cuff. J Bone Joint Surg Br 90-B, 680-684. PubMed ID 18450641

20. CLARKIN, C. E., EMERY, R. J., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & WHEELER-JONES, C. P. (2008) Evaluation of VEGF-mediated signaling in primary human cells reveals a paracrine action for VEGF in osteoblast-mediated crosstalk to endothelial cells. J Cell Physiol 214, 537-544. PubMed ID 17685428

21. BASTOW, E. R., BYERS, S., GOLUB, S. B., CLARKIN, C. E., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & FOSANG, A. J. (2008) Hyaluronan synthesis and degradation in cartilage and bone. Cell Mol Life Sci 65, 395-413. PubMed ID 17965830

22. LEWTHWAITE, J. C., CLARKIN, C. E., COATES, A. R., POOLE, S., LAWRENCE, R. A., WHEELER-JONES, C. P., PITSILLIDES, A. A., SINGH, M. & HENDERSON, B. (2007) Highly homologous Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 60 proteins with differential CD14 dependencies stimulate cytokine production by human monocytes through cooperative activation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Int Immunopharmacol 7, 230-240. PubMed ID 17178391

23. DUDHIA, J., SCOTT, C. M., DRAPER, E. R., HEINEGARD, D., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & SMITH, R. K. (2007) Aging enhances a mechanically-induced reduction in tendon strength by an active process involving matrix metalloproteinase activity. Aging Cell 6, 547-556. PubMed ID 17578513

24. ZAMAN, G., JESSOP, H. L., MUZYLAK, M., DE SOUZA, R. L., PITSILLIDES, A. A., PRICE, J. S. & LANYON, L. L. (2006) Osteocytes use estrogen receptor alpha to respond to strain but their ERalpha content is regulated by estrogen. J Bone Miner Res 21, 1297-1306. PubMed ID 16869728

25. TAYLOR, S. E., WEAVER, M. P., PITSILLIDES, A. A., WHEELER, B. T., WHEELER-JONES, C. P., SHAW, D. J. & SMITH, R. K. (2006) Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and hyaluronan levels in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis of the tarsometatarsal joint compared to a control population. Equine Vet J 38, 502-507. PubMed ID 17124839

26. PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2006) Early effects of embryonic movement: 'a shot out of the dark'. J Anat 208, 417-431. PubMed ID 16637868

27. LEWTHWAITE, J. C., BASTOW, E. R., LAMB, K. J., BLENIS, J., WHEELER-JONES, C. P. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2006) A specific mechanomodulatory role for p38 MAPK in embryonic joint articular surface cell MEK-ERK pathway regulation. J Biol Chem 281, 11011-11018. PubMed ID 16464862

28. KAVANAGH, E., CHURCH, V. L., OSBORNE, A. C., LAMB, K. J., ARCHER, C. W., FRANCIS-WEST, P. H. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2006) Differential regulation of GDF-5 and FGF-2/4 by immobilisation in ovo exposes distinct roles in joint formation. Dev Dyn 235, 826-834. PubMed ID 16425226

29. DAVIES, N. A., HODGES, S. J., PITSILLIDES, A. A., MOOKERJEE, R. P., JALAN, R. & MEHDIZADEH, S. (2006) Hepatic guanylate cyclase activity is decreased in a model of cirrhosis: a quantitative cytochemistry study. FEBS Lett 580, 2123-2128. PubMed ID 16563392

30. DE SOUZA, R. L., PITSILLIDES, A. A., LANYON, L. E., SKERRY, T. M. & CHENU, C. (2005) Sympathetic nervous system does not mediate the load-induced cortical new bone formation. J Bone Miner Res 20, 2159-2168. PubMed ID 16294269

31. DE SOUZA, R. L., MATSUURA, M., ECKSTEIN, F., RAWLINSON, S. C., LANYON, L. E. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2005) Non-invasive axial loading of mouse tibiae increases cortical bone formation and modifies trabecular organization: a new model to study cortical and cancellous compartments in a single loaded element. Bone 37, 810-818. PubMed ID 16198164

32. CABALLERO-ALIAS, A. M., LOVERIDGE, N., PITSILLIDES, A., PARKER, M., KAPTOGE, S., LYON, A. & REEVE, J. (2005) Osteocytic expression of constitutive NO synthase isoforms in the femoral neck cortex: a case-control study of intracapsular hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res 20, 268-273. PubMed ID 15647821

33. BASTOW, E. R., LAMB, K. J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., OSBORNE, A. C., KAVANAGH, E., WHEELER-JONES, C. P. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2005) Selective activation of the MEK-ERK pathway is regulated by mechanical stimuli in forming joints and promotes pericellular matrix formation. J Biol Chem 280, 11749-11758. PubMed ID 15647286

34. JESSOP, H. L., SUSWILLO, R. F., RAWLINSON, S. C., ZAMAN, G., LEE, K., DAS-GUPTA, V., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & LANYON, L. E. (2004) Osteoblast-like cells from estrogen receptor alpha knockout mice have deficient responses to mechanical strain. J Bone Miner Res 19, 938-946. PubMed ID 15190886

35. CHAMBLER, A., RAWLINSON, S., EMERY, R. & PITSILLIDES, A. (2004) Quantitative cytochemical evidence for local increases in bone turnover at the acromial enthesis of the human coracoacromial ligament. J Rheumatol 31, 2216-2225. PubMed ID 15517635

36. CABALLERO-ALIAS, A. M., LOVERIDGE, N., LYON, A., DAS-GUPTA, V., PITSILLIDES, A. & REEVE, J. (2004) NOS isoforms in adult human osteocytes: multiple pathways of NO regulation? Calcif Tissue Int 75, 78-84. PubMed ID 15148557

37. PITSILLIDES, A. A., DAS-GUPTA, V., SIMON, D. & RAWLINSON, S. C. (2003) Methods for analyzing bone cell responses to mechanical loading using in vitro monolayer and organ culture models. Methods Mol Med 80, 399-422. PubMed ID 12728734

38. PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2003) Identifying and characterizing the joint cavity-forming cell. Cell Biochem Funct 21, 235-240. PubMed ID 12910476

39. LAMB, K. J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., LIN, J. P., SIMON, D., KAVANAGH, E., WHEELER-JONES, C. P. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2003) Diverse range of fixed positional deformities and bone growth restraint provoked by flaccid paralysis in embryonic chicks. Int J Exp Pathol 84, 191-199. PubMed ID 14632633

40. LAMB, K. J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., BASTOW, E. R. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2003) Defining boundaries during joint cavity formation: going out on a limb. Int J Exp Pathol 84, 55-67. PubMed ID 12801279

41. HICKERY, M. S., BAYLISS, M. T., DUDHIA, J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., EDWARDS, J. C. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2003) Age-related changes in the response of human articular cartilage to IL-1alpha and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta): chondrocytes exhibit a diminished sensitivity to TGF-beta. J Biol Chem 278, 53063-53071. PubMed ID 13679381

42. DOWTHWAITE, G. P., FLANNERY, C. R., FLANNELLY, J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., ARCHER, C. W. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2003) A mechanism underlying the movement requirement for synovial joint cavitation. Matrix Biol 22, 311-322. PubMed ID 12935816

43. CHAMBLER, A. F., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & EMERY, R. J. (2003) Acromial spur formation in patients with rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 12, 314-321. PubMed ID 12934022

44. WIBULSWAS, A., CROFT, D., PITSILLIDES, A. A., BACARESE-HAMILTON, I., MCINTYRE, P., GENOT, E. & KRAMER, I. M. (2002) Influence of epitopes CD44v3 and CD44v6 in the invasive behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes derived from rheumatoid arthritic joints. Arthritis Rheum 46, 2059-2064. PubMed ID 12209509

45. OSBORNE, A. C., LAMB, K. J., LEWTHWAITE, J. C., DOWTHWAITE, G. P. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2002) Short-term rigid and flaccid paralyses diminish growth of embryonic chick limbs and abrogate joint cavity formation but differentially preserve pre-cavitated joints. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2, 448-456. PubMed ID 15758413

46. LOVERIDGE, N., FLETCHER, S., POWER, J., CABALLERO-ALIAS, A. M., DAS-GUPTA, V., RUSHTON, N., PARKER, M., REEVE, J. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2002) Patterns of osteocytic endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the femoral neck cortex: differences between cases of intracapsular hip fracture and controls. Bone 30, 866-871. PubMed ID 12052455

47. KAVANAGH, E., OSBORNE, A. C., ASHHURST, D. E. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (2002) Keratan sulfate epitopes exhibit a conserved distribution during joint development that remains undisclosed on the basis of glycosaminoglycan charge density. J Histochem Cytochem 50, 1039-1047. PubMed ID 12133907

48. JESSOP, H. L., RAWLINSON, S. C., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & LANYON, L. E. (2002) Mechanical strain and fluid movement both activate extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in osteoblast-like cells but via different signaling pathways. Bone 31, 186-194. PubMed ID 12110433

49. CHENG, M. Z., RAWLINSON, S. C., PITSILLIDES, A. A., ZAMAN, G., MOHAN, S., BAYLINK, D. J. & LANYON, L. E. (2002) Human osteoblasts' proliferative responses to strain and 17beta-estradiol are mediated by the estrogen receptor and the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I. J Bone Miner Res 17, 593-602. PubMed ID 11924572

50. ZAMAN, G., PITSILLIDES, A. A., RAWLINSON, S. C., SUSWILLO, R. F., MOSLEY, J. R., CHENG, M. Z., PLATTS, L. A., HUKKANEN, M., POLAK, J. M. & LANYON, L. E. (1999) Mechanical strain stimulates nitric oxide production by rapid activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in osteocytes. J Bone Miner Res 14, 1123-1131. PubMed ID 10404012

51. WARD, A. C., DOWTHWAITE, G. P. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1999) Hyaluronan in joint cavitation. Biochem Soc Trans 27, 128-135. PubMed ID 10093721

52. PITSILLIDES, A. A., SKERRY, T. M. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1999) Joint immobilization reduces synovial fluid hyaluronan concentration and is accompanied by changes in the synovial intimal cell populations. Rheumatology (Oxford) 38, 1108-1112. PubMed ID 10556264

53. PITSILLIDES, A. A., RAWLINSON, S. C., MOSLEY, J. R. & LANYON, L. E. (1999) Bone's early responses to mechanical loading differ in distinct genetic strains of chick: selection for enhanced growth reduces skeletal adaptability. J Bone Miner Res 14, 980-987. PubMed ID 10352107

54. GRIEVE, D. J., FLETCHER, S., PITSILLIDES, A. A., BOTHAM, K. M. & ELLIOTT, J. (1999) Effects of oral propylthiouracil treatment on nitric oxide production in rat aorta. Br J Pharmacol 127, 1-8. PubMed ID 10369449

55. DOWTHWAITE, G. P., WARD, A. C., FLANNELY, J., SUSWILLO, R. F., FLANNERY, C. R., ARCHER, C. W. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1999) The effect of mechanical strain on hyaluronan metabolism in embryonic fibrocartilage cells. Matrix Biol 18, 523-532. PubMed ID 10607914

56. RAWLINSON, S. C., ZAMAN, G., MOSLEY, J. R., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & LANYON, L. E. (1998) Heme oxygenase isozymes in bone: induction of HO-1 mRNA following physiological levels of mechanical loading in vivo. Bone 23, 433-436. PubMed ID 9823449

57. DOWTHWAITE, G. P., EDWARDS, J. C. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1998) An essential role for the interaction between hyaluronan and hyaluronan binding proteins during joint development. J Histochem Cytochem 46, 641-651. PubMed ID 9562572

58. CHENG, M. Z., ZAMAN, G., RAWLINSON, S. C., PITSILLIDES, A. A., SUSWILLO, R. F. & LANYON, L. E. (1997) Enhancement by sex hormones of the osteoregulatory effects of mechanical loading and prostaglandins in explants of rat ulnae. J Bone Miner Res 12, 1424-1430. PubMed ID 9286758

59. RAWLINSON, S. C., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & LANYON, L. E. (1996) Involvement of different ion channels in osteoblasts' and osteocytes' early responses to mechanical strain. Bone 19, 609-614. PubMed ID 8968027

60. RAWLINSON, S. C., MOSLEY, J. R., SUSWILLO, R. F., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & LANYON, L. E. (1995) Calvarial and limb bone cells in organ and monolayer culture do not show the same early responses to dynamic mechanical strain. J Bone Miner Res 10, 1225-1232. PubMed ID 8585427

61. PITSILLIDES, A. A., RAWLINSON, S. C., SUSWILLO, R. F., BOURRIN, S., ZAMAN, G. & LANYON, L. E. (1995) Mechanical strain-induced NO production by bone cells: a possible role in adaptive bone (re)modeling? FASEB J 9, 1614-1622. PubMed ID 8529841

62. PITSILLIDES, A. A., ARCHER, C. W., PREHM, P., BAYLISS, M. T. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1995) Alterations in hyaluronan synthesis during developing joint cavitation. J Histochem Cytochem 43, 263-273. PubMed ID 7868856

63. GOULDING, N. J., DIXEY, J., MORAND, E. F., DODDS, R. A., WILKINSON, L. S., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1995) Differential distribution of annexins-I, -II, -IV, and -VI in synovium. Ann Rheum Dis 54, 841-845. PubMed ID 7492225

64. ARCHER, C. W., MORRISON, H. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1995) [The cellular aspects of the development of synovial joints and articular cartilage]. Ontogenez 26, 259-269. PubMed ID 7478442

65. PITSILLIDES, A. A., WORRALL, J. G., WILKINSON, L. S., BAYLISS, M. T. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1994) Hyaluronan concentration in non-inflamed and rheumatoid synovium. Br J Rheumatol 33, 5-10. PubMed ID 8162458

66. PITSILLIDES, A. A., WILL, R. K., BAYLISS, M. T. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1994) Circulating and synovial fluid hyaluronan levels. Effects of intraarticular corticosteroid on the concentration and the rate of turnover. Arthritis Rheum 37, 1030-1038. PubMed ID 8024612

67. EDWARDS, J. C., WILKINSON, L. S., JONES, H. M., SOOTHILL, P., HENDERSON, K. J., WORRALL, J. G. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1994) The formation of human synovial joint cavities: a possible role for hyaluronan and CD44 in altered interzone cohesion. J Anat 185 ( Pt 2), 355-367. PubMed ID 7525525

68. ARCHER, C. W., MORRISON, H. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1994) Cellular aspects of the development of diarthrodial joints and articular cartilage. J Anat 184 ( Pt 3), 447-456. PubMed ID 7928634

69. WILKINSON, L. S., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1993) Giant cells in arthritic synovium. Ann Rheum Dis 52, 182-184. PubMed ID 7683454

70. WILKINSON, L. S., MOORE, A. R., PITSILLIDES, A. A., WILLOUGHBY, D. A. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1993) Comparison of surface fibroblastic cells in subcutaneous air pouch and synovial lining: differences in uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase activity. Int J Exp Pathol 74, 113-115. PubMed ID 8471531

71. PITSILLIDES, A. A., WILKINSON, L. S., MEHDIZADEH, S., BAYLISS, M. T. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1993) Uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase activity in normal and rheumatoid synovium: the description of a specialized synovial lining cell. Int J Exp Pathol 74, 27-34. PubMed ID 8471533

72. EDWARDS, J. C., WILKINSON, L. S. & PITSILLIDES, A. A. (1993) Palisading cells of rheumatoid nodules: comparison with synovial intimal cells. Ann Rheum Dis 52, 801-805. PubMed ID 7504437

73. WILKINSON, L. S., PITSILLIDES, A. A., WORRALL, J. G. & EDWARDS, J. C. (1992) Light microscopic characterization of the fibroblast-like synovial intimal cell (synoviocyte). Arthritis Rheum 35, 1179-1184. PubMed ID 1329776

74. PITSILLIDES, A. A. & BLAKE, S. M. (1992) Uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase activity in synovial lining cells in the experimental antigen induced model of rheumatoid arthritis: an indication of synovial lining cell function. Ann Rheum Dis 51, 992-995. PubMed ID 1417127

75. PITSILLIDES, A. A., BLAKE, S. M., GLYNN, L. E., FROST, G. T., BITENSKY, L. & CHAYEN, J. (1991) The effect of menadione epoxide on the experimental immune arthritis in the rabbit. Int J Exp Pathol 72, 301-309. PubMed ID 1843258

76. PITSILLIDES, A. A., BLAKE, S. M., GLYNN, L. E., BITENSKY, L. & CHAYEN, J. (1990) Amelioration by menadione of the experimental chronic immune arthritis in the rabbit. Cell Biochem Funct 8, 221-226. PubMed ID 2272120

77. DODDS, R. A., PITSILLIDES, A. A. & FROST, G. T. (1990) A quantitative cytochemical method for ornithine decarboxylase activity. J Histochem Cytochem 38, 123-127. PubMed ID 2104632

78. CHAYEN, J., PITSILLIDES, A. A., BITENSKY, L., MUIR, I. H., TAYLOR, P. M. & ASKONAS, B. A. (1990) T-cell mediated cytolysis: evidence for target-cell suicide. J Exp Pathol (Oxford) 71, 197-208. PubMed ID 2184871

79. PITSILLIDES, A. A., TAYLOR, P. M., BITENSKY, L., CHAYEN, J., MUIR, I. H. & ASKONAS, B. A. (1988) Rapid changes in target cell lysosomes induced by cytotoxic T cells: indication of target suicide? Eur J Immunol 18, 1203-1208. PubMed ID 3262064

Invited Review Articles

PITSILLIDES AA AND ASHHURST DE. (2008) A critical evaluation of specific aspects of joint development. Dev Dyn. 237(9):2284-2294.

BASTOW ER, BYERS S, GOLUB SG, CLARKIN CE, PITSILLIDES AA, FOSANG AJ (2008) Hyaluronan synthases and Hyaluonidases in the skeletal system. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 65(3):395-413.

PITSILLIDES AA. Early effects of embryonic movement: a shot out of the dark. (2006) Journal of Anatomy 208, 417-431.

LAMB KJ, BASTOW E, LEWTHWAITE JC & PITSILLIDES AA. Defining boundaries during joint cavity formation: going out on a limb. Int J Exp Pathol. 2003. 84(2):55-67.

WARD AC, DOWTHWAITE GP & PITSILLIDES AA. Hyaluronan in joint cavitation. Biochemical Society Transactions. 27, 128-135.

Book Chapters

BASTOW ER, LEWTHWAITE JC, WHEELER-JONES CPD, PITSILLIDES AA. (2004) Extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) modulates hyaluronan dependent pericellular matrix formation by embryonic chick articular surface cells. In: Hyaluronan 2003, Ch 6, p. 523528. Musculoskeletal System, ed VC Hascall & E Balazs. Pre-published online

PITSILLIDES AA, DAS-GUPTA V, SIMON D, RAWLINSON, SCF. (2003) Methods for analysing bone cell responses to mechanical loading using In vitro monolayer and Organ culture Models. In Methods in Molecular Medicine Vol 80, Bone Research Protocols. (eds. SH Ralston and MH Helfrich). Humana Press Inc. Totowa NJ, USA.

DOWTHWAITE G, THOMAS S, FLANNERY CR, PITSILLIDES AA AND ARCHER CW. Hyaluronan metabolism in response to mechanical strain is modulated by matrix depletion. In: Hyaluronan. Volume 2 (Kennedy JF, Phillips GO, Williams PA, eds.), Cambridge, UK. 375-382.

OSBORNE AC, KAVANAGH E, LAMB KJ, DOWTHWAITE G, ARCHER CW AND PITSILLIDES AA. (2002) Mechanomodulatory influences upon HA production in joint development. In: Hyaluronan. Volume 2 (Kennedy JF, Phillips GO, Williams PA, eds.), Cambridge, UK.303-310.

PITSILLIDES, AA AND LANYON LE. (1998) Mechanical strain-associated NO production by bone cells. In: Nitric oxide in bone and joint diseases. (Eds. Hukkanen, MVJ, Polak, JM, and Hughes, SPF) Cambridge University Press. pp. 151-168.

Andrew teaches in both Veterinary and BSc degrees. He led specific module for many years, with lectures on head, face, tooth, eye and ear embryology and anatomy, as well as gross dissection and related histology. In line with his research, he also teaches: extracellular matrix biology, cell junctions and basal lamina, as well as development, structure/function of bone, cartilage and joints. He has pioneered introduction of an Advanced Skeletal Pathobiology module for final year BSc students that uses innovative assessment methods.

He also guest lectured at UCL, Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, for Intercalated BSc, MSc Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy and MSc Sports Medicine degrees, and for MSc degrees at Imperial and Oxford Universities. He has served as an External examiner for several courses at UCL, London. His administrative responsibilities have been numerous and varied and he is currently Chair of the Teaching Quality Committee, which reports directly to the Academic Board at the RVC.

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