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Professor Roger Woledge

Professor Woledge sadly passed away in March 2015. For any queries regarding his work or any upcoming publications please contact Professor Alan Wilson, Professor Nancy Curtin or Dr Tim West.  


RCW obtained his BSc in Physiology in 1959 at University College London followed by research training with A.V.Hill 1959-62. He remained in UCL Physiology until his retirement in 2003, being Head of Dept (1988-1994) and Director of Institute of Human Performance in Stanmore (1994-2013). Since retirement he continued research work at Imperial College (until 2010), at Kings College London, at Queen Mary University London and more recently at the RVC (until 2015).


RCW's research concerns muscle contraction and in particular in-vitro measurement of the energetic cost of muscular activity. Since 1973 this research has been in collaboration with Prof N.A.Curtin (qv). They have investigated the muscle energetics of a number of different vertebrates (Frog, Tortoise, Lizard, Eel, Dogfish, Mouse) and sought theoretical explanations using crossbridge theories. Since 1985 RCW has been collaborating with Dr S.A. Bruce on investigations of human muscle strength and the weakness caused by age and hormonal status.

Selected Publications

Song W, Vikhorev PG, Kashyap MN, Rowlands C, Ferenczi MA, Woledge RC, MacLeod K, Marston S, Curtin NA. (2013) Mechanical and energetic properties of papillary muscle from ACTC E99K transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. Jun 1;304(11):H1513-24.

West TG, Toepfer CN, Woledge RC, Curtin NA, Rowlerson A, Kalakoutis M, Hudson P, Wilson AM. (2013) Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). J Exp Biol. Aug 1;216(Pt 15):2974-82.

Bieles JS, Bruce SA, Woledge RC. (2012) Menopause alters temperature sensitivity of muscle force in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. Mar;112(3):1117-22

Park-Holohan S, Linari M, Reconditi M, Fusi L, Brunello E, Irving M, Dolfi M, Lombardi V, West TG, Curtin NA, Woledge RC, Piazzesi G. (2012) Mechanics of myosin function in white muscle fibres of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Physiol. 590, 1973-1988.

Bickham DC, West TG, Webb MR, Woledge RC, Curtin NA, Ferenczi MA. (2011) Millisecond-scale biochemical response to change in strain. Biophys J. 2011 Nov 16;101(10):2445-54.

Barclay CJ, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2010) Is the efficiency of mammalian (mouse) skeletal muscle temperature dependent? J Physiol. 588(Pt 19):3819-31.

Barclay, C.J., Woledge, R.C. & Curtin, N.A. (2010). Inferring crossbridge properties from skeletal muscle energetics. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 102, 53-71.

Park-Holohan, S.-J., West, T.G., Woledge, R.C., Ferenczi, M.A., Barclay, C.J. & Curtin, N.A. (2010). Effect of phosphate and temperature on force exerted by white muscle fibres from dogfish. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 31, 35-44.

Mottram SL, Woledge RC, Morrissey D. (2009) Motion analysis study of a scapular orientation exercise and subjects' ability to learn the exercise. Man Ther 14 13-18.

Barclay, C.J., Woledge, R.C. & Curtin, N.A. (2009). Effects of UCP3 genotype, temperature and muscle type on energy turnover of resting mouse skeletal muscle. Pflugers Arch. (European Journal of Physiology) 457, 857-864. doi: 10.1007/s00424-008-0552-z.

Woledge, R.S., Barclay, C.J. & Curtin, N.A. (2009). Temperature change as a probe of muscle crossbridge kinetics: a review and discussion. Proceeding of the Royal Society B 276, 2685-2695.

Morrissey D, Morrissey MC, Driver W, King JB, Woledge RC. (2008) Manual landmark identification and tracking during the medial rotation test of the shoulder: an accuracy study using three-dimensional ultrasound and motion analysis measures. Man Ther 6 529-535.

Barclay CJ, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2007) Energy turnover for Ca2+ cycling in skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 28 259-274.

Onambele GN, Bruce SA, Woledge RC. (2006) Oestrogen status in relation to the early training responses in human thumb adductor muscles. Acta Physiol 188 41-52.

West TG, Ferenczi MA, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. Influence of ionic strength on the time-course of force development and Pi release by dogfish muscle fibres. J Physiol. 2005

Woledge RC, Birtles DB, Newham DJ. (2005) The variable component of lateral body sway during walking in young and older humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 11 1463-8.

Curtin NA, Woledge RC, Aerts P. (2005) Muscle directly meets the vast power demands in agile lizards. Proc Roy Soc Biol Sci. 272, 581-584.

West TG, Curtin NA, Ferenczi MA, He ZH, Sun YB, Irving M, Woledge RC. (2004) Actomyosin energy turnover declines while force remains constant during isometric muscle contraction. J Physiol. 555, 27-43.

James L, Onambele G, Woledge R, Skelton D, Woods D, Eleftheriou K, Hawe E, Humphries SE, Haddad F, Montgomery H. (2004) IL-6-174G/C genotype is associated with the bone mineral density response to oestrogen replacement therapy in post-menopausal women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 92 227-30

Onambele GLN, Bruce SA & Woledge RC (2004) Effects of voluntaryactivation level on force exerted by human adductor pollicis muscle during rapid stretches PflugersArch - Eur J Physiol 448,457–461

Curtin NA, West TG, Ferenczi MA, He ZH, Sun YB, Irving M, Woledge RC. (2003) Rate of actomyosin ATP hydrolysis diminishes during isometric contraction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 538, 613-626.

Morrish GM, Woledge RC, Haddad FS. (2003) Activity in three parts of the quadriceps recorded isometrically at two different knee angles and during a functional exercise. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol.43 , 259-65.

Galantis A. & Woledge R.C. (2003) Theoretical limit to the power output of a muscle-tendon complex with inertial and gravitational loads. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 1493-1498.

Linari M, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2003) Energy storage during stretch of active single fibres from frog skeletal muscle. J Physiol.;548, 461-74.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (2002) Isometric and isovelocity contractile performance of red muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 1585-1595.

Bernstein I.A., Webber O. & Woledge R. (2002) An ergonomic comparison of rowing machine designs: possible implications for safety. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 108-112.

Woledge R.C. (2001) Douglas Robert Wilkie. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London, 47, 481-495.

Bruce S.A., Birtles D.B., Gentles H., Rosenberg M.E. & Woledge R.C. (2001) Corrective strategies to a standardised trip in young and older subjects. Age and Ageing, 30, Suppl. 4, 47.

Pearson S.J., Harridge S.D., Grieve D.W., Young A. & Woledge R.C. (2001) A variable inertial system for measuring the contractile properties of human muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 2072-2076.

Woods D., Onambele G., Woledge R., Skelton D., Bruce S., Humphries S. & Montgomery H. (2001) Ace genotype-dependent benefit from HRT in isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 2200-2204.

Onambele N.G.L., Woods D., Skelton D.A., Bruce S.A., Woledge R.C., Humphreys S.E. & Montgomery H. (2001) Possible genetic influences on responses to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women. Journal of Physiology (London), 531, 38P.

Woods D., Onambele G., Woledge R., Skelton D., Bruce S., Humphries S. & Montgomery H. The ACE I/D polymorphism and the response to hormone replacement therapy. abstract

Onambele N.G.L., Skelton D.A., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2001) Follow up study of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy on isometric muscle strength of adductor pollicis in postmenopausal women. Clinical Science, 100, 421-422.

Bruce S.A., Birtles D.B., Gentles H., Rosenberg M.E. & Woledge R.C. 2000) Differences between older and younger human subjects in corrective responses to a standardised trip. Journal of Physiology (London), 525, 46P.

Christopoulou E.E., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) The role of muscle strength in sit-to-stand strategies in women. Journal of Physiology (London), 523, 238P.

Brockbank C.L., Chatterjee F., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) Heart rate and its variability change after the menopause. Experimental Physiology, 85, 327-330

Lou F., van Der Laarse W.J., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) Heat production and oxygen consumption during metabolic recovery of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 1201-1210.

Curtin N.A., Woledge R.C. & Bone Q. (2000) Energy storage by passive elastic structures in the mantle of sepia officinalis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 869-878.

Skelton D.A., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A., Naylor C.H. & Woledge R.C. (1999) Hormone replacement therapy increases muscle strength of adductor pollicis in postmenopausal women. Clinical Science, 96, 357-364.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1999) Elastic energy storage and release in white muscle from dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, 135-142.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Shortening during stimulation vs. during relaxation. How do the costs compare? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 453, 545-553; discussion 553-555

Woledge R.C. (1998) Muscle energetics during unfused tetanic contractions. Modelling the effects of series elasticity. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 453, 545-553; discussion 543-544

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Contraction with shortening during stimulation or during relaxation: how do the energetic costs compare? Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, 19, 797-802.

Skelton D.A., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A., Naylor C.H. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Hormone replacement therapy increases muscle strength. Journal of Physiology (London), 506, 105P.

McGoldrick T., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Changes in isometric force of mouse soleus muscle during the oestrous cycle. Pflügers Archiv, 437, 70-73.

Phillips S.K., Woledge R.C., Bruce S.A., Young A., Levy D., Yeo A. & Martin F.C. (1998) A study of force and cross-sectional area of adductor pollicis muscle in female hip fracture patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 999-1002.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Distinguishing metabolic heat from condensation heat during muscle recovery. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201 2553-2558.

Taylor S.J., Walker P.S., Perry J.S., Cannon S.R. & Woledge R. (1998) The forces in the distal femur and the knee during walking and other activities measured by telemetry. Journal of Arthroplasty 13, 428-437.

Woledge R.C. (1998) Possible effects of fatigue on muscle efficiency. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 162, 267-273.

Curtin N.A. Gardener-Medwin A.R., & Woledge R.C. (1998) Predictions of the time course of force and power output by dogfish white muscle fibres during brief tetani. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 103-114.

Buschman H.P., Linari M., Elzinga G. & Woledge R.C. (1997) Mechanical and energy characteristics during shortening in isolated type-1 muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis studied at maximal and submaximal activation. Pflugers Archiv, 435, 145-150.

Morrish G.M. & Woledge R.C. (1997) A comparison of the activation of muscles moving the patella in normal subjects and in patients with chronic patellofemoral problems. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 29, 43-48.

Bruce S.A., Phillips S.K. & Woledge R.C. (1997) Interpreting the relation between force and cross-sectional area in human muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 677-683

Curtin N.A. Kushmerick M.J., Wiseman R.W., & Woledge R.C. (1997) Recovery after contraction of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 1061-1071.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1997) The energetic cost of activation of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 495-501.

Buschman H.P., Elzinga G. & Woledge R.C. (1996) The effects of level of activation and shortening velocity on energy output in type 3 muscle fibress from Xenopus laevis. Pflugers Archiv, 433, 153-9.

Phillips S.K., Sanderson A.G., Birch K., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (1996) Changes in maximum voluntary force of human adductor pollicis muscle during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Physiology (London), 496, 551-557

Phillips S.K., Levy D., Yeo A. Woledge R.C., Bruce S.A., Martin F.C., & Young A. (1996) A comparison of adductor pollicis muscle strength in healthy young women, healthy elderly women and female hip fracture patients. Journal of Physiology (London), 494, 134P.

Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1996) Power at the expense of efficiency in contraction of white muscle fibres from dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 593-601.

Bruce S., Woledge R. & Phillips S. (1996) Muscle strength and oestrogen status. Age and Ageing, 25, 81-82.

Dr Ida Bailey

In 2012 Dr Bailey began a Postdoctural Research Assistant Role with the Healy lab at the University of St-Andrews, investigating the role of cognition in bird nest building behaviour.


Dr Bailey completed her PhD in March 2010, having worked under the supervision of Dr Sue Healy, in the Institute of Evolutionary Biology at the University of Edinburgh. Following this, she began her work as a postdoc with the Structure and Motion Lab between December 2011 and April 2012. She worked with Professor Alan Wilson on the CARDyAL project, investigating factors influencing group movements and cooperative behaviours. 

Selected Publications

Bailey, IE, Morgan, K, Bertin, M, Meddle, SL & Healy, SD 2014 'Physical cognition: birds learn the structural efficacy of nest material' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol 281, no. 1784, 20133225

Bailey, IE, Segelbacher, G, Healy, SD, Hurly, TA & Pemberton, JM 2013 'Microsatellite variation in Rufous Hummingbirds (Selaphorus rufus) and evidence for a weakly structured population' Journal of Ornithology, vol 154, no 4, pp1029-1037

Bailey, I, Myatt, JP & Wilson, AM 2013 'Group hunting within the Carnivora: physiological, cognitive and environmental influences on strategy and cooperation' Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, vol 67, no 1, pp 1-17

Dr Jean De Barros


Jean is now a Research Associate for the Department of Computer Science, University College London.


Jean worked in the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC with Professor Alan Wilson.

Dr Yvonne Blum

Yvonne Blum

Yvonne was a postdoctoral researcher in the Structure and Motion Laboratory, investigating the principles of bipedal locomotion in uneven terrain. She is now working as a Training Engineer at MathWorks in Munich.



12/2010                     PhD at the Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena
Topic of the PhD thesis: Biomechanical Models and Stability Analysis of Bipedal Running

05/2005                     Diploma (equivalent to MSc) in physics at the University of Jena
Topic of the diploma thesis: Dynamics of Charged Spinning Particles in post-Coulomb Approximation of Higher Order

Work Experience

11/2010 – 08/2013     Postdoctoral researcher at the Structure and Motion Lab

12/2005 – 10/2010     Research assistant at the Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena

08/2005 – 11/2005     Research assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF FhG), Jena

11/2002 – 05/2005     Student assistant at the Department of Physics, University of Jena

09/2000 – 08/2002     Student assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF FhG), Jena


Yvonne's research with the RVC focused on the development and investigation of control strategies for legged locomotion. During her time at the RVC, she was part of Dr Monica Daley's research team and collaborated with the Dynamic Robotics Laboratory at the Oregon State University. The aim of this collaboration is to test bioinspired models that are based on experimental data of ground birds as control targets for a bipedal robot. This project is funded by the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP).

Selected Publications

Blum Y, Birn-Jeffery A, Daley M A, Seyfarth A, Does A Crouched Leg Posture Enhance Running Stability and Robustness?, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 281(1): 97-106, 2011

Rummel J, Blum Y, Seyfarth A, Robust and Efficient Walking with Spring-like Legs, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics5(4): 046004, 2010

Blum Y, Lipfert SW, Rummel J, Seyfarth A, Swing Leg Control in Human Running, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics5(2): 026006, 2010

Rummel J, Blum Y, Maus HM, Rode C, Seyfarth A, Stable and Robust Walking with Compliant Legs, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2010: 5250-5255, 2010

Blum Y, Lipfert SW, Seyfarth A, Effective Leg Stiffness in Running, Journal of Biomechanics42(16): 2400-2405, 2009

Rummel J, Blum Y, Seyfarth A, From Walking to Running, Autonome Mobile Systeme 2009, Dillmann R, Beyerer J, Stiller C, Zöllner JM, Gindele T (Eds.) Springer: 89-96, 2009

Blum Y, Rummel J, Seyfarth A, Advanced Swing Leg Control for Stable Locomotion, Autonome Mobile Systeme 2007, Berns K, Luksch T (Eds.), Springer: 301-307, 2007

Kyle Chadwick

Following his position with the RVC, Kyle now works as a Motion Lab Engineer at the Los Angeles Children's Hospital, providing gait analysis for children with cerebral palsy. 


In May 2013, Kyle obtained his BSc in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Virginia. While at UVA Kyle performed research in the Multiscale Muscle Mechanics Lab, supervised by Silvia Blemker, where he studied the biomechanics of Batoid rays.

In September 2013, Kyle came to the RVC Structure & Motion Laboratory to take his current position as biomechanics research technician, supervised by John Hutchinson. Kyle is assisting with research on the evolutionary biomechanics of sesamoid bones in vertebrate limbs.

In October 2013, Kyle also began an MRes researching the sesamoid bones in ostrich knees to better understand the mechanical stimuli behind sesamoid development. For more information on Kyle, see his personal website


Chadwick KP, Regnault S, Allen V, Hutchinson JR. (2014). Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint. PeerJ 2:e706 

Dr Sandra Corr

Sandra and another cat

Sandra is a Clinical Reader in Small Animal Surgery at the University of Nottingham. 


Graduated from Glasgow University Veterinary School and worked in small animal and equine practice in the UK for 6 years before taking a post as a lecturer in surgery at the University of Zimbabwe. Sandra then returned to the UK to do a PhD in gait analysis at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, followed by a 3 year Residency in orthopaedic surgery at Glasgow University. She joined the clinical department of the RVC in November 2002, where she was employed as a Lecturer in Small Animal Surgery. 


Sandra's main interests are in clinical orthopaedics and developing advanced motion analysis techniques for the investigation of clinical problems and assessment of surgical outcomes. Most of all she enjoys working with big cats. 

Becky Diack


Becky studied a BSc (Hons) Bioveterinary Sciences degree here at RVC and graduated in 2013. During her final year she undertook a research project in the Structure and Motion Laboratory on 'The mechanical properties of single skeletal muscle fibres in broiler hens across ontogeny' supervised by Prof. John Hutchinson and Dr. Tim West. Becky returned to RVC in Janurary 2014 as a Research Technician on the LOCATE Project. 


Becky's role involves using a Temperature-jump method of activation (Aurora Scientific) to measure mechanical properties of single skeletal muscle fibres. Single fibre mechanics are carried out in parallel with whole muscle mechanics studied by Prof. Nancy Curtin and Prof. Roger Woledge. 

Dr Ehud Eliashar

Ehud golfing


Ehud graduated from the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University, Israel in 1996. During his first year he worked in the Equine Hospital as an Intern in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, and in 1998 came to the RVC for a three-year training programme in Equine Surgery. In 2000, he was appointed as a lecturer, and in 2001 passed the board exam of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons (ECVS) to become a Diplomat, the first Israeli born specialist in Equine Surgery.

During his residency Ehud became interested in lameness and corrective farriery, and a few joined projects with the Structure & Motion Lab yielded good and important clinical data. 

His interests include all aspects of lameness, corrective farriery and limb biomechanics with emphasis on clinical applications.

E-mail: eeliashar at

Papers in peer-reviewed journals

  1. Eliashar E., S.J. Dyson, R.M. Archer, E.R. Singer and R.K.W. Smith. Desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 23 horses. Equine Vet. J. (submitted for publication).
  2. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: Relationship of foot conformation and force applied to the navicular bone of sound horses at the trot. Equine Vet. J. (2004) 36, 431-435.
  3. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P., Rogers K.A. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of three horseshoing styles on the kinetics of breakover in sound horses. Equine Vet. J. (2002) 34,184-190.
  4. Eliashar E., Schramme M.C., Schumacher J., Ikada Y., and Smith R.K.W.: Use of a bioabsorbable implant for the repair of severed digital flexor tendons in four horses. Vet. Rec. (2001) 148, 506-509.
  5. Eliashar E., Smith R.K.W., Schramme M.C. and Pead M.J. Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. Equine Vet. J. (2000) 32, 447-448.

Peer-reviewed abstracts

  1. E. Eliashar, S.J. Dyson, E.R. Singer and R.K.W. Smith: Desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 21 horses. In: Proceedings ECVS 13th annual scientific meeting, pp266-269, 2004.
  2. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: The effect of heel collapse and the angle of the distal phalanx on the forces applied to the foot. In: Proceedings BEVA annual meeting, pp 304, 2003.
  3. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of the forces applied to the front and hind feet in trotting horses. In: Proceedings BEVA annual meeting, pp 305, 2003.
  4. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: The effect of heel collapse and the angle of the distal phalanx on the forces applied to the foot. In: Proceedings ECVS 12th annual scientific meeting, pp200-202, 2003.
  5. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P., Rogers K.A. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of three horseshoing styles on the kinetics of breakover in sound horses. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp202, 2001.
  6. Crowe O.C., Freeman S.L., Eliashar E., Schramme M.C., and Smith R.K.W: Extracorporal shock wave therapy for the treatment of hindlimb proximal suspensory desmitis. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp197, 2001.
  7. Eliashar E., Smith R.K.W., Schramme M.C. and Pead M.J.: Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. In: Proceedings ECVS 9th annual scientific meeting, pp79-81, 2000.
  8. Eliashar E., Smith R. K. W., Schramme M. C. and Pead M. J.: Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp209, 2000.
  9. Eliashar E., Schramme M. C., Schumacher J., Ikada Y., and Smith R. K.: Preliminary results with a bio-absorbable implant for flexor tendon lacerations in horses. In: Proceedings ECVS 8th annual scientific meeting, pp67-69, 1999.

Hannah Evans

Following her position with the RVC Hannah has returned to clinical practice. 


Hannah graduated with Honours from the University of Nottingham in 2012 as a Veterinary Surgeon. Having gone straight into clinical practice, she spent over a year at a hospital practice in South Wales and then moved back to the Midlands to locum at several small animal practices for the six months preceding the start of her position at the RVC. 


The remit of Hannah's work has been to understand the anatomical and muscle physiology specialisations for economical locomotion and migration of large African herbivores. She has analysed data collected using innovative GPS tracking collars, aerial filming systems and muscle biopsies, studying parameters such as preferred gait, speed and muscle performance at individual fibre level.

Her fieldwork was conducted on the savannahs of Eastern and Southern Africa: the Serengeti, Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, studying zebra, wildebeest, impala and other large herbivores. This built on pilot studies in the UK, using predominantly domestic dogs and horses to test the tracking and filming equipment to ensure all the kit was working as expected before flying out to field locations. 

Although the focus of the project has been on locomotion and physiology, the results will also be of relevance to behavioural ecology, wildlife conservation and habitat management. 


LOCATE: Locomotion, hunting and habitat utilisation among large African carnivores and their prey.

People: Alan Wilson, Oliver Dewhirst, Hannah Evans, Richard Harvey

Professor Alan Wilson leads a team of researchers in the southern African savannah to identify how speed, manoeuvering and habitat impact the hunting and evasion practices of carnivores and their prey. 

Dr Peter Falkingham

Peter is currently working as a Senior Lecturer in the School of Natural Sciences and Psychology at Liverpool John Moores University. 


Dr Falkingham holds a BSc (hons) in Biology and Geology (2003) and a MSc in Computer Science (2004), both from the University of Bristol.

His PhD was carried out at the University of Manchester on Computer Simulation of Dinosaur Tracks, aiding in development of the finite element analysis software ParaFEM to simulate the indentation of dinosaur feet into cohesive substrates.

In 2012 Dr Falkingham was awarded a Marie Curie International Outgoing Research Fellowship, in order to study theropod locomotor evolution, as expressed in fossil tracks. This three year fellowship involved two years at Brown University, USA, before returning to RVC in 2014.

Peter subsequently took up his current post as a Senior Lecturer at Liverpool John Moores University in the School of Natural Sciences and Psychology.  


Peter's primary research focus is on dinosaur tracks, specifically how the foot and sediment interact, and how we can subsequently reverse-engineer their formation in order to constrain and understand the limb motion of these extinct animals.

While a skeleton is a record of an animal's anatomy, a track is formed in vivo, recording the animal during life. As such, fossil tracks and trackways provide additional, complimentary data to the body fossil record. By understanding the motion of substrate around a dynamically moving foot, it is possible to use tracks to constrain possible motions of the distal (and therefore proximal) limb. Peter's work incorporates digitisation of fossil tracks and computer simulation. In addition, his work incorporates data from extant taxa using XROMM techniques to study the motion of the foot during locomotion over deep, soft substrates.

In additional to his work on footprints, Peter is also involved in other research areas including dinosaur biomechanics and taxonomy, development of digitsation techniques and applications, cambrian echinoderm hydrodynamics, and materials science, collaborating with scientists from the UK, USA, across Europe, Australia, and South America.

Selected Publications

Dr Falkingham's 10 most recent peer reviewed academic publications are listed below. For a complete list, including PDFs and conference proceedings, see either his or Mendeley pages.

  • Falkingham PL (2014) Interpreting ecology and behaviour from the vertebrate fossil track record. Journal of Zoology: 222-228.
  • Falkingham PL, Bates KT, Farlow JO (2014) Historical Photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River Dinosaur Chase Sequence Digitally Reconstructed as It Was prior to Excavation 70 Years Ago. PLoS ONE 9: e93247.
  • Razzolini NL, Vila B, Castanera D, Falkingham PL, Barco JL, et al. (2014) Intra-Trackway Morphological Variations Due to Substrate Consistency: The El Frontal Dinosaur Tracksite (Lower Cretaceous, Spain). PLoS ONE 9: e93708.
  • Bennett MR, Morse SA, Falkingham PL (2014) Tracks made by swimming Hippopotami: An example from Koobi Fora (Turkana Basin, Kenya). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 409: 9-23.
  • White MA, Falkingham PL, Cook AG, Hocknull SA, Elliott DA (2013) Morphological comparisons of metacarpal I forAustralovenator wintonensisandRapator ornitholestoides: implications for their taxonomic relationships. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology: 1-7.
  • Maidment SCR, Bates KT, Falkingham PL, VanBuren C, Arbour V, et al. (2013) Locomotion in ornithischian dinosaurs: an assessment using three-dimensional computational modelling. Biological Reviews: n/a-n/a.
  • Falkingham PL (2013) Low cost 3D scanning using off-the-shelf video gaming peripherals. Journal of Paleontological Techniques 11: 1-9.
  • Castanera D, Vila B, Razzolini NL, Falkingham PL, Canudo JI, et al. (2013) Manus Track Preservation Bias as a Key Factor for Assessing Trackmaker Identity and Quadrupedalism in Basal Ornithopods. PLoS ONE 8: e54177.
  • Bennett MR, Falkingham PL, Morse SA, Bates K, Crompton RH (2013) Preserving the Impossible: Conservation of Soft-Sediment Hominin Footprint Sites and Strategies for Three-Dimensional Digital Data Capture. PLoS ONE 8: e60755.
  • Bates KT, Savage R, Pataky TC, Morse SA, Webster E, et al. (2013) Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure? Journal of the Royal Society: Interface 10: 20130009.

Dr Shin-ichi Fujiwara

Shin-ichi has been working as an Assistant Professor for The Nagoya University Museum since 2012.


Shin-ichi finished his BSc (Earth Science) from the University of Tokyo supervised by Prof. Tatsuo Oji in 2003 for his research about living posture in extinct crinoid which uniquely occurs from muddy substrate.

Anna at a recent open day

He went on to the Department of Earth and Planetary Science, the University of Tokyo, for his MSc and PhD, supervised by Prof. Tatsuo Oji and Dr. Makoto Manabe (National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan). He began to focus on reconstruction of forelimb postures in extinct tetrapods for his graduate research, and finished his MSc thesis on a new reconstruction of manus structure in ceratopsid dinosaurs. Inspired by fuctional morphology, biomechanics, and comparative anatomy, he was devoted to study relationships between skeletal morphologies and the limb postures for his PhD.

After he finished his PhD in 2008, he moved to Dr. Takenori Sasaki's lab, the University Museum, the University of Tokyo (UMUT), as a research cooperator, and kept on studying reconstructions of limb postures in extinct animals. In 2009, Shin-ichi moved to Prof. Hideki Endo's lab (UMUT) as a postdoc research fellow, and started studying the limb postures in inverted and sprawling quadrupeds He also visited Dr. John R. Hutchinson (RVC) for three months funded by Anne Sleep Award, the Linnean Society. In 2010, he was funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science at Prof. Hideki Endo. Shin-ichi joined RVC as an academic visitor in May 2010 for the research of sprawling limb posture and related topics with Dr. John R. Hutchinson.

Shin-ichi returned to UMUT ( in May 2011 as a postdoc research fellow.



Shin-ichi's research focuses on relationship between skeletal morphologies and the actual limb postures of the animals based on functional morphology and comparative anatomy. His research aims to reconstruct reliable limb postures in extinct tetrapods (e.g., ceratopsian dinosaurs and desmostylian mammals). He also aims to reveal how the limb posture diversified among the lineages of tetrapods. Shin-ichi's previous/ongoing topics are as follows:

  • Reconstruction of living posture on muddy substrate in a fossil crinoid.
  • Evolution of manus structure in ceratopsian dinosaurs.
  • Relationship between scapular position and strength of rib in quadrupedal tetrapods.
  • Relationship between olecranon orientation and elbow joint angle in extant quadrupedal mammals.
  • Reconstruction of elbow joint angle in desmostylian mammals and ceratopsian dinosaurs.
  • Comparison between shapes of articular surface and calcified epiphysis of limb bones in sauropsids.
  • Relationship between skeletal morphology and forelimb posture in inverted (upside down) quadrupeds.
  • Relationship between skeletal morphology and sprawling forelimb posture.

Beside his research, Shin-ichi have overseen reconstructions of the motions and postures of extinct animals in computer graphic movies exhibited in National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan, and Gunma Museum of Natural History, Tomioka, Japan. He have also overseen reconstructions of many scientific illustrations and models in ceratopsian dinosaurs.

Selected Publications

  1. Fujiwara S-I, Endo H, and Hutchinson JR. 2011. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints. Journal of Anatomy, 219:176-191.
  2. Fujiwara S-I and Takakuwa Y. 2011. A sub-adult growth stage indicated in the degree of suture co-ossification in Triceratops. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History, 15:1-7.
  3. Fujiwara S-I, Taru H, and Suzuki D. 2010. Shape of articular surface of crocodilian (Archosauria) elbow joints and its relevance to sauropsids. Journal of Morphology, 271:883-896.
  4. Fujiwara S-I. 2009b. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology, 108:1107-1121.
  5. Fujiwara S-I, Kuwazuru O, Inuzuka N, and Yoshikawa N. 2009. Relationship between scapular position and structural strength of rib cages in quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology, 108:1084-1094.
  6. Fujiwara S-I. 2009a. A reevaluation of the manus structure in Triceratops (Ceratopsia: Ceratopsidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29:1136-1147.
  7. Fujiwara S-I, Oji T, Tanaka Y, and Kondo Y. 2005. Relay strategy and adaptation to a muddy environment in Isselicrinus (Isselicrinidae: Crinoidea). Palaios 20:241-248.

Dr Hamed Haddadi

Description: Hamed HaddadiHamed joined the EECS department at Queen Mary, University of London in 2011 and is an Assistant Professor in digital media.

Whilst a postdoctoral researcher at the RVC and Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge,. Hamed was working on measuring cognitive, locomotor, social dynamics and behavioral functions in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington Disease.


Hamed has worked at a variety of institutions including:

From Oct 2004-2008 Hamed investigated the Topological Characteristics of IP Networks for his PhD, which he successfully defended on 31st October 2008. He carried out his thesis research jointly between the NetOS Group, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, and Networks and Services Research Laboratory Group,UCL (supervised by: Dr Miguel Rio, Dr Andrew Moore , Dr Richard Mortier)

Hamed was also student at London Business School, under the UCL CSEL sponsorship programme, attending MBA electives. His MPhil (transfer) Thesis investigatedNetwork Traffic Inference Using Sampled Statistics [html,pdf].

In 2004 Hamed completed an MSc in Telecommunication Engineeringwith distinction. He wassponsored by EPSRC, Project: kOS “kind of Operating System” (report). This work had contributions to technology spin-outSenceive.

Between 1999-2003 was studying for a BEng (Hons) Electronic Engineering. His2nd & final year were sponsored by Sony Europe. His projectfocussed on anRDS Encoder (report).

Read more at Hamed's website


Research blog, NetSocioNomics

Hamed's research forms a part of the work of the Structure & Motion Laboratory. This work is in collaboration with the Dept of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge and the Dept of Computer Science, UCL. He works on measuring cognitive, locomotor, social dynamics and behavioral functions in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington's Disease.

Hamed is also a visiting researcher at Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge.

As a part of his work on social networks (including online, human and animal) Hamed has been involved with:

  • Technical Program Committee: IEEE GLOBECOM (2009, 2010, 2011), SIMNA 2011, Pervasive 2011, IEEE CCNC'2011 Workshop on Social Networking (SocNets 2011), International Conference on Digital Information and Communication Technology and its Applications(DICTAP2011), IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop on Complex and Communication Networks(CCNet 2010), Eurosys Social Network Systems 2009, IEEE ICUMT'09, International Workshop on Emerging Internet Applications WEIA'09, International Congress on Modelling and Simulation ModSim'09
  • Reviewer: IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Letters,Elsevier COMNET, Guest Editor for MASAUM Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences (MJBAS), Wiley's handbook on Computer Networks, Computer Communications Journal, Springer Journal of the Network and Systems Management, ACM SIGCOMM, IEEE INFOCOMM, IEEE/ACM ToN and ACM IMC


Guest lecturer at Cambridge University Computer Laboratory on MPhil course

(Network Architecture) (Slides)

Selected Publications


  1. Meeyoung Cha, Juan Antonio Navarro Perez, Hamed Haddadi, "The Spread of Media Content Through Blogs", in Social Network Analysis and Mining, Springer 2011 (To Appear)
  2. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Liam Kilmartin, Andrew W Moore, Jerome Kunegis, Marios Iliofotou, "Network clustering via spectral projections", in Elsevier Computer Networks (COMNET), 2011, Paper
  3. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier and Steve Uhlig, "Weighted Spectral Distribution: A Metric for Structural Analysis of Networks ", in Machine Learning Approach for Network Analysis: Novel Graph Classes for Classification Techniques, Wiley, USA, 2011
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Andrew J. King, Alison P. Wills, Damien Fay, John Lowe, A. Jennifer Morton, Stephen Hailes, and Alan Wilson, "Determining association networks in social animals: choosing spatial-temporal criteria and sampling rates", in (Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology), 2011, (paper)
  5. Hannah Hobbs-Chell, Andrew J. King, Hannah Sharratt, Hamed Haddadi, Skye R. Rudiger , Stephen Hailes, A. Jennifer Morton, Alan M. Wilson, "Data-loggers carried on a harness do not adversely affect sheep locomotion", in Research in Veterinary Science, Elsevier, 2011 (Paper)
  6. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, Tristan Henderson, Ian Brown, "Targeted Advertising on the Handset: Privacy and Security Challenges", in (Pervasive Advertising), Springer Human-Computer Interaction Series, 2011 (paper)


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, Ian Brown "MobiAd: Private and Scalable Mobile Advertising", in The 5th ACM International Workshop on Mobility in the Evolving Internet Architecture (MobiArch2010), Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 2010 (paper)
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, "To Add or not to Add: Privacy and Social Honeypots", in IEEE First International Workshop on Social Networks, Cape Town, South Africa, May 27, 2010 (invited paper)
  3. Meeyoung Cha, Hamed Haddadi, Fabricio Benevenuto,Krishna Gummadi, "Measuring User Influence in Twitter: The Million Follower Fallacy", in ICWSM 2010, 4th Int'l AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, May 23-26, 2010, George Washington University, Washington, DC (paper) (NYTimes coverage ) (Harvard Business Review coverage ) (Media coverage)
  4. Hamed Haddadi, "Battling Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (CCR) , Vol. 40, No. 2,April 2010(Paper)
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Tristan Henderson, and Jon Crowcroft, "The ambient loo: caught short when nature calls?", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (CCR), Editorial Zone (Comic) , Vol. 40, No. 2,April 2010(Paper)
  6. H. Haddadi, D. Fay, S. Uhlig, A. Moore, R. Mortier, A. Jamakovic, "Mixing Biases: Structural Changes in the AS Topology Evolution", To appear in proc. of the second international workshop on Traffic and Measurements Analysis (COST-TMA 2010), Zürich, Switzerland, April 2010. (paper)
  7. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew G. Thomason, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, Steve Uhlig, Miguel Rio, "Weighted Spectral Distribution for Internet Topology Analysis: Theory and Applications", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (ToN), Volume 18, Issue 1, February 2010 [draft] (WSD Toolbox)


  1. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Steve Uhlig, Almerima Jamakovic, "A Weighted Spectrum Metric for Comparison of Internet Topologies", ACM SIGMETRICS PER Performance Evaluation Review, December 2009 (paper)
  2. Saikat Guha, Alexey Reznichenko, Hamed Haddadi, Paul Francis, "Serving Ads from localhost for Performance, Privacy, and Profit", Eighth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-VIII), October 2009, New York City, NY (paper)
  3. S. Guha, B. Cheng, A. Reznichenko, H. Haddadi, and P. Francis. Privad: " Rearchitecting Online Advertising for Privacy. Technical Report TR-2009-4, Max Planck Institute for Software Systems, Kaiserslautern-Saarbrucken, Germany, 2009.
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Steve Uhlig, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, "Analysis of the Internet’s structural evolution, "Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-756, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, September 2009 TECH_REPORT
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Saikat Guha, Paul Francis, "Not All Adware is Badware:Towards Privacy-Aware Advertising", 9th IFIP Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E 2009), September 2009, Nancy, France [Paper]
  6. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Almerima Jamakovic, Olaf Maennel, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Steve Uhlig, "On the Importance of Local Connectivity for Internet Topology Models", 21st International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 21), September 2009, Paris, France (Paper)
  7. Meeyoung Cha, Juan Antonio Navarro Perez, and Hamed Haddadi, "Flash Floods and Ripples: The Spread of Media Content through the Blogosphere", 3rd Int'l AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM) Data Challenge Workshop, May 17 - 20, 2009, San Jose, California [BEST PAPER AWARD]
  8. Richard G. Clegg, Raul Landa, Hamed Haddadi, Miguel Rio, "Measuring the likelihood of models for network evolution", IEEE Infocom NetSciCom Workshop, April 24, 2009 - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Preprint]
  9. R. G. Clegg, M. S. Withall, A. W. Moore, I. W. Phillips, D. J. Parish, M. Rio, R. Landa, H. Haddadi, K. Kyriakopoulos, J. Auge, R. Clayton and D. Salmon, "Challenges in the capture and dissemination of measurements from high-speed networks", IET Communications, Special Issue on Simulation, Analysis and Measurement of Broadband Network Traffic, volume 3, Issue 6 2009 pp 957-966


  1. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, "Weighted spectral distribution", Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-729, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, September 2008 (tech-report)
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Almerima Jamakovic, Olaf Maennel, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, Steve Uhlig, "Beyond Node Degree: Evaluating AS Topology Models", Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-725, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, July 2008 (tech-report)
  3. Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Andrew Moore, Saleem Bhatti, Miguel Rio, Xianhui Che, “Revisiting the Issues On Netflow Sample and Export Performance”, CHINACOM 2008, Third International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, August 25-27, 2008, Hangzhou, China [paper]
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Gianluca Iannaccone, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, "Network Topologies: Inference, Modelling and Generation", IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Volume 10, Number 2, 2008, paper
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Steve Uhlig, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, Miguel Rio, "Tuning Topology Generators Using Spectral Distributions", SPEC International Performance Evaluation Workshop 2008, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5119, June 2008, Darmstadt, Germany, Book Chapter (paper)
  6. Richard G. Clegg, Raul Landa, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Miguel Rio, "Techniques for flow inversion on sampled data", 11th IEEE INFOCOM Global Internet Symposium, April 2008, Phoenix AZ, USA (paper)
  7. Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, and Miguel Rio. Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 38(2), April 2008. (paper)


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, Gianluca Iannaccone, "End-to-End Network Topology Generation", Extended abstract, ACM SIGCOMM, August 2007, Kyoto, Japan [abstract]
  2. Richard G. Clegg, Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Miguel Rio, “Towards Informative Statistical Flow Inversion” May 2007 [paper]


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Miguel Rio, Saleem Bhatti, “Revisiting the Issues On Netflow Sample and Export Performance” December 2006, [paper]
  2. Hamed Haddadi and Lionel Sacks, “Networks Modelling Using Sampled Statistics”, Proceedings of LCS2006, London Communications Symposium: The Annual London Conference on Communication, University College London , 14th-15th September 2006 [paper]


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Lionel Sacks, “Passive Monitoring Challenges on High-Speed Switched Networks”, Proceedings of LCS2005, London Communications Symposium: The Annual London Conference on Communication, University College London , 8th-9th September 2005 [paper]
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Lionel E Sacks, “Development of a Monitoring and Measurement Platform for UKLight High-Capacity Network”, Proceedings of PREP2005 : Postgraduate Research Conference in Electronics, Photonics, Communications and Networks, and Computing Science, University of Lancaster, UK, 30th March to 1st April 2005 [paper]
  3. Hamed Haddadi, Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Lionel E Sacks, “Applications of GridProbe Technology for Traffic Monitoring on High-Capacity Backbone Networks, Data-Link Layer Simulation Approach”, Extended abstract, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2005: The Conference on Computer Communications, Miami, Florida, USA, March 13th -17th 2005 [abstract]
  4. Matt Britton, Venus Shum, Lionel Sacks and Hamed Haddadi, “A Biologically-Inspired Approach to Designing Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of EWSN 2005: 2nd European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, Istanbul, Turkey, January 31st – February 2nd 2005 [paper via IEEE Xplore]


PRIVATE, ACCOUNTABLE, AND PERSONALIZED INFORMATION DELIVERY IN A NETWORKED SYSTEM , United States Patent application, Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), with Paul Francis and Saikat Guha

Dr Ashley Heers

Dr Ashley Heers is a Postdoctural Research Fellow, now working for the American Museum of Natural History.


Ashley is originally from California, where she earned bachelors degrees in Biology and Geology at the University of California, Davis. She then went on to complete a Ph.D. at the University of Montana. Subsequently, Ashley began her work at the RVC's Structure and Motion Lab as a Research Fellow, looking at the relationship between anatomy and locomotor performance in developing birds. 


Ashley is interested in functional morphology, and the development and evolution of locomotor capacity and performance. Her work currently focuses on wing- and leg-based locomotion in birds and their theropod ancestors.

Dr Behzad Momahed Heravi

Following his Postdoctoral Research post with the Structure and Motion Lab Dr Behzad Momahed Heravi has taken up another research position with the University College London within the Faculty of Engineering Science. 


Behzad received his BSc in Mechanical engineering in 2003 and MSc in Aerospace engineering (flight dynamics and control) from Sharif University of Technology in 2005. He undertook a PhD (ORSAS scholarship) at the School of Computing and Communications in Lancaster University, supervised by Bahram Honary, where he studied low-complexity capacity approaching codes.

Behzad worked as a Research Associate at Lancaster University where he led (EPSRC) research projects in advanced coding and modulation for future HF-IP systems. Subsequently, he worked in telecoms industry (HW Communications) as senior R&D engineer where he undertook industrial projects on probabilistic location determination based on GSM and WiFi networks.

Behzad moved to the University of London, Royal Veterinary College in 2013, taking up the position of postdoctoral researcher in the EPSRC CARDyAL project, working with Alan Wilson and Stephen Hailes on localisation in wireless sensor networks.

Behzad is a member of IEEE Communication Society, the Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) and IEEE UK&RI Information Theory Chapter. He is an active reviewer in IET Communications, IET Wireless Sensor Systems and IET Image Processing journals.


Behzad's research interests include

  • mobile wireless sensor networks
  • cooperative localisation
  • sensor fusion
  • statistical inference and estimation
  • coalition formation games

Selected Publications

  • M. Ghamri, B. M. Heravi, U. Roedig, B. Honary, C. A. Pickering, ‘Improving Transmission Reliability of Low-Power MAC Protocols Using Average Diversity Combining’, IET Wireless Sensor Systems, Vol 2, pp. 377-384, December 2012.
  • B. M. Heravi, S.R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Switchable-rate Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for IP over HF Systems’, IET Communications, Vol. 5 , No. 4, pp. 505 – 511, March 2011.
  • B. M. Heravi , S. Kariyawasam , N. Pandya , B. Honary, ‘Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Code Design for Practical Applications’, The Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 6, No. 3 2010, pp. 86-92.
  • S. Ayub, B. M. Heravi, A. Bahraminasab, B. Honary, ‘Pedestrian Direction of Movement Determination using Smartphone’, Next generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, 2012 Sixth Intl. Conf. on, Paris France on 12-14 September 2012, pp 64-69.
  • B. M. Heravi, S.R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary and L. Barclay, ‘Performance Analysis of Next-Generation HF-IP Systems using Capacity Approaching Codes’, 13th International Ionospheric Effects Symposium (IES 2011), May 17-19, Washington DC, United States.
  • B. M. Heravi, S. R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Construction of Switchable-rate QC-LDPC Codes for HF-IP Systems’, 10th Int. Symp. Comms. Theory and Applications, Ambleside, UK, 13-17 July, 2009, pp 232-235
  • S. R. Kariyawasam, B. M. Heravi, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Switchable-Rate Error Control Coding for HF-IP Systems”, The IET Ionospheric Radio Systems and Techniques (IRST 2009), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh,UK. 28-30th April 2009, pp 132-136.
  • S. R. Kariyawasam, B. M. Heravi, B. Honary, G. Vongas, and L. Barclay, ‘HF-IP: Propagation Analysis’, The IET Ionospheric Radio Systems and Techniques (IRST 2009), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh,UK. 28-30th April 2009, pp 127-131.

Dr Andrew King

Andrew left the RVC to join Swansea University’s College of Science in a permanent academic position in September 2012 and is now a Senior Lecturer in Biosciences.


Andrew King

A NERC Research Fellow, Andrew’s work uses a question-oriented approach to address a range of issues in behavioural and evolutionary ecology, especially concerning group-living animals. For more information see Andrew's personal research pages.

Andrew has a PhD in Behavioural Ecology. He is an Honorary Research Fellow at the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge (Evolutionary Ecology Group), and is a member of the Tsaobis Baboon Project (Zoological Society of London) and the Baboon Research Unit (University of Cape Town). He is also serves as an Editor for Animal Behaviour,and is a Member of The NERC Peer Review College.


At the RVC Andrew was based in the Structure and Motion Laboratory, a Centre of Excellence at the forefront of developing technologies to study animal movement, where he uses a question-oriented approach to examine how costs and benefits shape individual behaviour, so that he can understand how these behaviours relate to the structure and functioning of groups and populations. He uses a variety of group-living fish, bird, and mammal systems to answer these important research questions.

Andrew's research is team-oriented, and he collaborates with a variety of individuals and institutions to find innovative ways to tackle his research questions, blending theoretical modelling and field observations and experiments. He has spent nearly three years in Southern Africa, studying the behaviour and ecology of baboons in the Namib Desert, and meerkat sociality in the Kalahari Desert. He still gets into the field to study wild populations, but is enjoying answering his questions in his new fish laboratory at the RVC.


Andrew lectures on the 'Animal Behaviour and Welfare' and 'Comparitive Animal Locomotion' modules as part of the BSc Bioveterinary Science degree. Andrew guest lectures for Imperial College, London. Andrew supervises two PhD students, Leah Williams (personality and leadership in a social bird) and Diamanto Mamuneas(collective performance in animal groups).

Selected Publications

For a full list of publications and download links, click here.

King, A. J., Wilson, A. M., Wilshin, S. D., Lowe, J., Haddadi, H., Hailes, S., Morton, A. J. (2012). Selfish-herd behaviour of sheep under threat.Current Biology. In Press.

King, A. J., Cheng, L., Starke, S. D., Myatt, J. P. (2012) Is the true “wisdom of the crowd” to copy successful individuals?Biology LettersOnline early.

King, A. J.& Sumpter, D. J. T. (2012) Murmurations.Current Biology22: R112-R114.

King, A. J., Sueur, C., Huchard, E., Cowlishaw. G. (2011) A rule-of-thumb based on social affiliation explains collective movements in desert baboons.Animal Behaviour82: 1337-1345.

King, A. J.,Narraway, C., Hodgson, L., Weatherill, A., Sommer, V. & Sumner, S. (2011) Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision-making.Biology Letters7: 237-240.

King, A. J.& Sueur, C. (2011). Where next? Group coordination and collective decision-making by primates.International Journal of Primatology.32: 1245-1267.

King, A. J., Clark, F. E. & Cowlishaw, G. (2011) The dining etiquette of desert baboons: the roles of social bonds, kinship, and dominance in co-feeding networks.American Journal of Primatology73: 768-774.

King, A. J.(2010) Follow me! I'm a leader if you do; I'm a failed initiator if you don't?Behavioural Processes. 84: 671-674

King, A. J.,Johnson, D. D. P. & Van Vugt, M. (2009) The origins and evolution of leadership.Current Biology19: R911-R916.

King, A. J., Isaac, N. J. B. & Cowlishaw, G. (2009) Ecological, social, and reproductive factors shape producer-scrounger dynamics in baboons.Behavioral Ecology20: 1039-1049.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009c) All together now: behavioural synchrony in baboons.Animal Behaviour78: 1381-1387.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009b) Leaders, followers and group decision-making.Communicative & Integrative Biology2: 147-150.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009a) Foraging opportunities drive interspecific associations between rock kestrels and desert baboons.Journal of Zoology277: 111-118.

King, A. J., Douglas, C. M. S., Isaac, N. J. B., Huchard, E.& Cowlishaw, G. (2008) Dominance and affiliation mediate despotism in a social primate.Current Biology18: 1833-1838.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2007) When to use social information: the advantage of large group size in individual decision-making.Biology Letters3: 137–13.

Outreach Activities

Andrew is enthusiastic about engaging others in science and hasorganised numerous public scientific meetings and international symposia.His work has also featured in The Economist, New Scientist, BBC Wildlife, and Discover Magazine, and he is regularly interviewed about his workby the media. You can learn more about these activities here.

Dr Julia Myatt

Julia Myatt

Julia is currently a lecturer at the University of Birmingham teaching various aspects of zoology at an undergraduate level. 


2010-2012: Postdoctoral researcher in the Structure and Motion Lab, RVC, University of London with prof Alan Wilson(Funded by EPSRC: Cooperative aerodynamics and radio-based dynamic localisation).

2006-2010: PhD (Funded by BBSRC: 'Applying an ecomorphological framework to the study of orangutan positional behaviour and morphological variation within the non-human apes'), supervised by Dr Susannah K S Thorpe, examined by Dr Kris D'Aout and Dr Stephen Publicover. - involved 12 month period of fieldwork on Sumatra Indonesia

2005-2006: Research Technician in the Insect Ecology Group, Lancaster University with Prof Ken Wilson (Funded by NERC: Costs of Immunity: A Nutritional Perspective).

2003-2004: Student placement at Syngenta Ltd in the Entomology Team -research project into the production of the root-knot nematode in a soil system.

2001-2005: BSc (first class honours) Applied Biology (University of Bath) - research project: Behaviour of New World vs Old World monkeys in a captive system.


Julia's research has focused on understanding the relationship between the morphology of primates and the behaviours they perform in the complex forest environment (morphlogy-behaviour-habitat interface). She has a strong interest in all aspects of animal locomotion and behaviour, from the level of the muscle fibre through to the movement patterns and social interactions of whole groups. She is particularly interested in the relationship with the natural environment and how this shapes the evolution of the systems observed.


Julia taught comparative ape locomotion and anatomy (CAL) to RVC VetSci undergraduates and primate conservation to final-year undergraduates.  She has also supervised a number of final-year students carrying out both zoo-based and field-based primate studies.

Selected Publications

Usherwood, J.R., Channon, A.J., Myatt, J.P., Rankin, J.W. and Hubel, T.Y. (2012). The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric force?.J. Roy. Soc. Interface.

van Casteren, A; Sellers, W.I., Thorpe, S.K.S., Coward, S., Crompton, R.H., Myatt, J.P. and Ennos, A.R. (2012). Nest-building orangutans demonstrate engineering know-how to produce safe, comfortable beds.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Myatt, J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Payne-Davis et al. (2012). Functional adaptation in the forelimb muscles of non-human great apes.J Anat.

King A.J., Cheng, L., Starke, S.D. and Myatt, J.P. (2011). Is the true 'wisdom of the crowd' to copy successful individuals?.Biol Lett.

Myatt J.P. and Thorpe, S.K.S. (2011). Postural strategies employed by orangutans (Pongo abelii) during feeding in the terminal branch niche.Am J Phys Anthropol. 146: 73-82

Myatt J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Thorpe, S.K.S (2011). Hindlimb muscle architecture in non-human great apes and a comparison of methods for analysing inter-species variation.J Anat. 219: 150-166

Myatt J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Thorpe, S.K.S (2011). A new method for recording complex positional behaviours and habitat interactions in primates.Folia Primatol. 83: 13-24

Myatt J.P., Schilling, N. and Thorpe, S.K.S. (2011). Distribution patterns of fibre types in the tricep surae muscle group of chimpanzees and orangutans.J Anat. 218: 402-412

Portugal, S.J., Thorpe, S.K.S., Green, J.A., Myatt, J.P. and Butler, P.J. (2009). Testing the use/disuse hypothesis: pectoral leg muscle changes in captive barnacle geese Branta leucopsis during wing moult.J Exp Biol. 212: 2401-2410.

Cotter, S.C., Myatt, J.P., Benskin, C.M.H. and Wilson, K. (2008). Selection for cuticular melanism reveals immune function and life-history trade-offs inSpodoptera littoralis.J Evol Biol. 21: 1744-1754.

Outreach Activities

- STEM ambassador for Hertfordshire (2011- 2012)

- Co-organised sessions for GCSE-level in the Structure and Motion Lab, presenting lectures and undertaking practical experiments with small groups of children (2012)

- Co-organised RVC Open Day events (2011 and 2012) investigating aspects of swarm intelligence

- Attended secondary school careers days as an advisor (Potter's Bar; 2012)

- Demonstrated at the Science Museum 'Robotville Festival' with Dr Andrew Spence (SML; 2011)

- Presented sessions and activities related to being a field biologist at a year 9 Science at Work Day (Milton Keynes; 2011)

Dr Olga Panagiotopoulou

Olga Panagiotopoulou

 Olga left the RVC in 2013 to take up a position as Lecturer in Anatomy at the School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.


After completing a MSc degree in human osteology and palaeopathology at the University of Bradford, Olga moved to the University of York to do a PhD funded by Marie Curie-MEST-CT-2005-200601.

This PhD project was supervised by Dr. Samuel Cobb of the Functional Morphology and Evolution Research Unit of the Hull York Medical School (HYMS) and was also conducted in cooperation with the Centre of Medical Engineering and Technology (CMET) of the University of Hull. Using medical imaging techniques, 3D virtual reconstruction and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Olga tested whether symphyseal morphology reflects an adaptational balance between the spatial requirements of housing the developing anterior dentition and the biomechanical functional maintenance during ontogeny. The validity of the FE models was tested by carrying out experimental strain measurements in the laboratory using laser speckle interferometry and strain gauges analyses.

Being highly qualified in the application of FEA and experimental techniques for the comprehension of the form-function relationship of anatomical structures Olga joined the Structure & Motion Lab in RVC following her PhD to further expand her research expertise in skull/feeding biomechanics with a new repertoire in limb/locomotion biomechanics.



Olga's research is focused on assessing the links between form (morphology), function (mechanics) and development of the terrestrial vertebrate musculoskeletal system during feeding and locomotion.

Why does the vertebrate musculoskeletal system vary so widely--or in other words, what are the functional and developmental consequences of anatomical variation? Evolutionary history surely has played a huge role in shaping musculoskeletal form, but how do developmental changes in musculoskeletal mechanics and scaling factors during ontogeny constrain and/or direct the morphology and composition of musculoskeletal design?


Olga's research in feeding mechanics seeks to determine the function of the primate and mammalian chewing apparatus as it relates to dietary ecology, dental morphology and development in adulthood and during ontogeny. Using in vivo experimental techniques, computer simulations and mathematical models she studies how the modulation of muscle activity affects the motion of the jaw and how this interaction affects the morphology of the mandible and the dental tissues. She also explores the effect of developmental factors, such as the crypts of the developing dentition on mandibular form.

Her research on feeding mechanics has generated ongoing collaborations with Dr. Ross (University of Chicago, USA), Dr. Cobb (Hull York Medical School, UK), Prof. Dechow (Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, USA), Dr. Taylor (Duke University, USA), Dr. Iriarte-Diaz (University of Chicago, USA).


Olga's locomotor interests seek to study the basic principles of foot form, function and evolution and also determine how regional loads on foot structures (bones, joints, pads, ligaments and tendons) relate to the occurence of pathologies.

The most common cause of morbidity and death in animals in captivity and domesticity is foot disease (pathologies). Foot pathologies encountered clinically are similar across species, including humans, and encompass degenrative (e.g. osteoarthritis, tendonitis, laminitis), infectious (e.g. foot abscesses) and traumatic (e.g. fractures) disorders. Foot disease is often progressive, painful and treatment unrewarding in many cases leading to disabled and euthanised animals. Prevention is hence the key in ensuring the welfare of those animals, and knowledge about the main factors contributing to foot disease an essential prerequisite. The cause of these pathologies is multifactorial. The biomechanical foot-ground interaction is a critical contributor, particularly the high frequency vibrations when the foot hits the ground during locomotion, as well as large forces (hence stresses and pressures) imposed later in the step which can exacerbate pathology even if not the primary cause.

Olga's research on locomotor mechanics has been in collaboration with Prof. Hutchinson (The Royal Veterinary College) and has generated ongoing collaborations with Dr. Pataky (Shinshu University, Japan).

Selected Publications

Peer reviewed:

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hill Z., Hutchinson J.R. (2012). Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Experimental Biology 215 1584-1593.

Panagiotopoulou O., Wilshin S.D., Rayfield E.J., Shefelbine S.J., Hutchinson J.R. (2012). What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 9 351-361.

Panagiotopoulou O. & Cobb S.N. (2011).The mechanical significance of morphological variation in the macaque mandibular symphysis during mastication. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146 253-261.

Cobb S.N. & Panagiotopoulou O. (2011). Balancing the spatial demands of the developing dentition with the mechanical demands of the catarrhine mandibular symphysis. Journal of Anatomy 218 (1) 96-111.

Panagiotopoulou O., Kupczik K., Cobb, S.N. (2011). The mechanical function of the periodontal ligament in the macaque mandible: a validation and sensitivity study using finite element analysis. Journal of Anatomy 218 (1) 75-86.Highest published paper for 2010-2011 and Journal of Anatomy Better Paper Prize for the paper.

Panagiotopoulou O., Curtis N.,O' Higgins P., Cobb, S.N. (2010). Modelling subcortical bone in finite element analyses: a validation and sensitivity study in the macaque mandible. Journal of Biomechanics 43 (8) 1063-1611.

Panagiotopoulou O. 2009. Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Applying an engineering method to functional morphology in anthropology and in human biology. Annals of Human Biology, 36(5): 609-623.

Conference Proceedings:

Melleney A, Panagiotopoulou O., Whitlock J, Weller R. (2012). Determining the relationship between subchondral density and articular cartilage thickness in the fetlock joint of Thoroughbred racehorses. British Equine Veterinary Association.

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hutchinson J.R. (2011). Regional plantar pressure distribution during walking in hoofed mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A 8.6).

Warner S.E., Pickering P., Panagiotopoulou O.,Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R. (2011). Size-related biomechanical constraints on foot impacts in ungulate mammals. The Society of Integrated Biology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hutchinson J.R.(2011). Regional plantar pressure distribution during walking in hoofed mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A8.6).

Warner S.E., Pickering P., Panagiotopoulou O., Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R.(in press). Frequency content of impact force signals in ungulates. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A 8.7).

Warner S.E., Panagiotopoulou O., Pickering P. Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R.(2010).Scaling of foot impact mechanics in ungulate mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 123 (A 8.66).

Panagiotopoulou O., Njuguna P., Rayfield E., Tsaopoulos D., Shefelbine S., Hutchinson J.R. (in press). Subject-specific finite element analysis of regional bone stresses in the femur of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during locomotion. Journal of Morphology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Kupczik K., Cobb S.N. (in press). The mechanical significance of the periodontal ligament in the macaque mandible: a validation and sensitivity study using ex vivo experimental analyses and finite element modelling.Journal of Morphology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2010.The effect of the spatial demands of the developing dentition on the mechanical performance of the mandibular symphysis in juveniles. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141 (S50).

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2009. Anterior mandibular morphology, masticatory biomechanics and dietary reconstructions of fossil hominoids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29 (3): 161A.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2009. Testing the adaptive significance of the catarrhine symphysis using Finite Element Analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138 (S48):205 (Mildred Trotter Prize).

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Biomechanical adaptation in the mandibular symphysis of European Miocene hominoids. Workshop of European Fossil Primates, Simposio della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, Grosseto, Italy.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Modelling trabecular and cortical bone in the macaque mandible: Do internal geometry and material properties matter? UK Workshop on Modern Functional Anatomy, Natural History Museum, London.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Determinants of symphyseal form of the mandible: Biomechanical and spatial models during ontogeny. Society for the Study of Human Biology, Oxford.

Book Entries:

Panagiotopoulou O., 2008. Bone: a structure - function approach. In: van Asperen, Becker, Demarchi, Groning, Panagiotopoulou (Eds) Interdisciplinary approaches to reconstructing the past, University of York, pp 93-114.

Also see my pages in and Google Scholar.

Dr Rachel Payne

Rachel in Livingo


Rachel graduated in Anatomy and Human Biology at Liverpool University. It was during this time that she developed her passion for primates and evolution. Rachel went on to study orang-utan locomotion with Robin Crompton at Liverpool University, gaining a PhD in Hominoid locomotion. Rachel’s first academic post was as a lecturer in Biomechanics at Brunel University. In 2003, she joined the Structure & Motion Lab at the RVC as a Research Fellow. In August 2005, she was employed as a full time Lecturer in Anatomy and Biomechanics.


Rachel is particularly interested in the relationships between functional anatomy, whole limb design and locomotion. She is currently investigating functional locomotor anatomy in animals designed for speed, endurance and adaptability (horse, greyhound, ostrich, hare, camel, primate, cheetah, lion, tiger, okapi). Her other work includes research into the evolution of bipedalism through the study of living primates and studies of the biomechanics and energetics of human bilateral amputee gait.

Rachel is a dedicated educator and has taught anatomy, biomechanics and evolution across many RVC undergraduate and postgraduate courses. She has also been Course Director of the Gateway Programme which provides students from low income families with the opportunity to attend vet school.

Rachel returned to the RVC for a time to work at the CETL LIVE Centre conducting research into veterinary education.


  1. Isler, K., Payne, R.C., Günther, M.M., Thorpe, S.K.S., Li, Y., Savage, R., Crompton, R.H. Inertial Properties of Hominoid Limb Segments. J Anat.
  2. Wright DA, Marks, L, Payne, RC (in press). A comparative study of physiological costs of walking in bilateral amputees. Prosthetics and Orthotics International..
  3. Smith NC, Jespers KJ, Payne RC, Wilson AM (2007). Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus). J. Anat.
  4. Payne RC (2007) Encouraging student diversity: a new Gateway to veterinary medicine. In Practice.29: 356-359.
  5. SB Williams, Payne RC and AM Wilson. (2007). Functional Specialisation of the Pelvic limb of the Hare (Lepus europeus). J Anat. 210: 472-490.
  6. SB Williams, AM Wilson and Payne RC (2007). Functional Specialisation of the thoracic limb of the Hare (Lepus europeus). J Anat. 210: 491-505.
  7. Payne RC, Crompton RH, Gunther MM, Isler K, Thorpe SKS, Savage R and D’Aout K (2006) Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. Part I: Comparative anatomy. J. Anat.208, 709-24.
  8. Payne RC, Crompton RH, Gunther MM, Isler K, Thorpe SKS, Savage R and D’Aout K.(2006) Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. Part II: Moment arms. J. Anat208, 725-42.
  9. Smith NC, Wilson AM, Jespers KJ, Payne RC (2006). Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the Ostrich (Struthio camelusJ. Anat. 209 (6):765-79.
  10. Ferrari M, Weller R, Pfau T, Payne RC, Wilson AM (2006) A comparison of freehand three-dimensional ultrasound, two-dimensional ultrasound and dissections for determination of lesion volume in tendons. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biol. 32797-804
  11. Isler K, Payne RC, Günther MM, Thorpe SKS, Li Y, Savage R, Crompton RH (2006). Inertial Properties of Hominoid Limb Segments. J. Anat. 201: 209-218.
  12. Payne RC, Hutchinson JR, Robilliard JJ, Wilson AM (2005) Functional specialisation of the equine pelvic limb. J. Anat. 206, 557-574.
  13. Vereeke E, Payne RC, D’Août K, Aerts P (2005) Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of Hylobates lar and Pan paniscusJ. Anat. 206, 453-476.
  14. Payne RC, Veenman P and Wilson AM. (2004) The role of the extrinsic muscles of the equine thoracic limb. J. Anat. 206, 415-556.
  15. Crompton RHC, Li Y, Thorpe SK, Wang WJ, Savage R, PayneRC, Carey TC, Aerts P, Van Elsacker L, Hofstetter A., Günther MM, D’Aout K and DeClerq D (2003). Biomechanical Evolution of Erect Bipedality. Courier Forschuungsinstitut Senckenberg.

Book Chapters and Reviews

  1. 2002. Li, Y., Crompton, R.H.C., Wang, W.W., Savage, R., Günther, M.M. and Payne RC. Hindlimb-drive, hindlimb-steering? Functional differences between fore- and hindlimbs in chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) quadrupedalism. In: Anapol F, Jablonski N, editors. Shaping primate evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dr Stephanie Pierce

Stephanie is currently employed as an Assistant Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Harvard.


Stephanie graduated with an Honours in Palaeontology BSc degree from the University of Alberta, Canada. Directly following this, she pursued an MSc degree by research in Systematics and Evolution at the University of Alberta studying the anatomy and evolutionary relationships of extinct marine lizards. Her love of vertebrate evolution brought her to the University of Bristol, UK, where she embarked on a PhD degree which focused on assessing the interplay between skull shape variation and biomechanical performance in extant and extinct crocodiles. Stephanie subsequently began working as a Temporary Lecturer at the RVC in Evolutionary Biomechanics, examining the locomotion potential of early tetrapods. Stephanie is now working as an Assistant Professor Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Harvard and is a Curator of Vertibrate Paleontology in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Research Interests

Stephanie's scholarly interests are focused on assessing the link between form and function of the vertebrate skeletal system – especially with respect to muscle/skeletal interactions during feeding and locomotor behaviours in modern and extinct animals.

Stephanie has primarily been working on unravelling the locomotion potential of the earliest limbed vertebrates in collaboration with Prof Jenny Clack in the Museum of Zoology, Cambridge and Prof John Hutchinson at the Royal Veterinary College.

Selected Publications

Palaeo/Zoology Publications

Technical Publications


Educational Publications Profile

ResearchGate Profile

Dr Steven Portugal

Following his role with the Structure and Motion lab as a Postdoctural Researcher, Steven took his current post in 2014 as a Lecturer in Animal Behaviour for the School of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway University, 


2011-2014: EPSRC Postdoctural Researcher, Structure and Motion Laboratory, RVC. Steven worked with Professor Alan Wilson on the CARDyAL project, investigating flocking behaviour in birds. This project looked in particular at the potential aerodynamic benefits of "V" flight formation in migrating birds such as geese and ibis. 

2008-2011: Leverhulme/HFSP Postdoctural Researcher, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham

2004-2008: BBSRC funded PhD: School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham

2003-2004: ESF funded MSc in Ecology: School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales

2002: RSPB Research Assistant on the Shetland Islands.

1998-2001: BSc, University of Wales.


Steven classifies himself as a comparative ecophysiologist whose research is located at the interface of the physiology, sensory ecology and behaviour of vertebrates. 

For more information visit 

Dr Lei Ren

Dr Lei Ren

Lei is a Senior Lecturer for the School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester.


Lei graduated in Mechanical Engineering and then went on to complete a PhD in Vehicle Engineering from National Lab of Automotive Dynamic Simulation, Jilin University, P.R. China. He then came to England and worked on a UK Ministry of Defense project on biomechanics of human locomotion with load carriage, at the Centre for Rehabilitation and Human Performance Research, University of Salford.

Lei worked at the RVC from August 2005-October 2007, working on elephant locomotor performance with Dr. John R Hutchinson. Following this position he began working as a Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Manchester, but maintaining a presence in our lab.



Lei is interested in understanding biomechanics and motor control of animal and human locomotion using mathematical, physical and engineering methods (e.g. computational multi-body dynamics, dynamical system theory and non-linear time series analysis).

  • Predictive modelling of human, animal locomotion
  • Computational modelling of musculoskeletal system and neural control system
  • Load carriage biomechanics
  • Robotics
  • Clinical biomechanics
  • Functions of elastic and damping components in biomechanical systems
  • Development of computational software for biomechanics studies

Dr Wiebke Schuett

Wiebke Schuett

Since 2012 Wiebke has been working as a Postdoctural researcher in the Division of Behavioural Biology, University of Hamburg. 


2011. Postdoctoral researcher: social networks, behaviour and locomotion in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington’s disease, Structure & Motion Lab, Royal Veterinary College, University of London (research group: Prof. Alan Wilson), University of Cambridge (Prof. Jenny Morton) & University College London (Prof. Stephen Hailes), UK

2010. Postdoctoral researcher: social information use in wild jackdaws, Corvus monedula, and pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, University of Helsinki, Finland (research group: Dr. Toni Laaksonen)

2009-2010. Postdoctoral researcher: raptor conservation project, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, UK (research group: Dr. David Hodgson)

2009. Postdoctoral researcher: ASAB grant (£4100) on life-history trade-offs and consistent behavioural differences in pea aphids, University of Osnabrueck, Germany (research group: Dr. Till Eggers)

2005-2008. Ph.D. on “Sexual selection and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata”, University of Exeter; main supervisor: Dr. Sasha Dall; 2nd supervisor: Prof. Tom Tregenza; external examiner: Prof. Ben Sheldon; including research visit at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany (research group: Dr. Wolfgang Forstmeier)

2004. M.Sc. (Biology of Organisms), University of Osnabrueck

2003. B.Sc. (Biology of Organisms), University of Osnabrueck

Further practical experience

2009. Field assistant, University of Exeter

2005. Research assistant, University of Osnabrueck

2004. Field assistant, University of Osnabrueck


Selected Publications

  1. Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2009). Sex differences, social context and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour 77, 1041-1050.
  2. Schuett, W, Tregenza, T & SRX Dall (2010). Sexual selection and animal personality. Biological Reviews 85, 217-246.
  3. Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2010). Appearance, “state”, and behavior in male zebra finches,Taeniopygia guttata. Journal of Ethology 28, 273-286.
  4. Royle, NJ, Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2010). Behavioral consistency and the resolution of sexual conflict. Behavioral Ecology 21(6), 1125-1130.
  5. Schuett, W, Dall, SRX & NJ Royle (2011). Pairs of zebra finches with similar “personalities” make better parents. Animal Behaviour 81, 609-618.
  6. Schuett, W, Dall, SRX, Baeumer, J, Kloesener, MH, Nakagawa, S, Beinlich, F & T Eggers (2011). ‘Personality’ variation in a clonal insect: the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Developmental Psychobiology, 53, 631-640.
  7. Schuett, W, Godin, J-GJ & SRX Dall (2011). Do female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, choose their mates based on their “personality”? Ethology, 117, 908-917.

Dr Thomas Witte

Tom worked at the RVC as an Equine Surgeon and Senior Lecturer. Recognised as an RCVS, American and European Specialist, his clinical interests include head and neck surgery and minimally invasive surgery. His research focuses on the biomechanics and control of the locomotor system and upper respiratory tract.


Tom qualified from The Royal Veterinary College in 2000. After a period in first opinion equine and farm animal practice (Garston Veterinary Group, Frome, Somerset) Tom returned to the Structure and Motion Lab at the Royal Veterinary College to complete a Horserace Betting Levy Board funded PhD in Equine Biomechanics, with a focus on the locomotor capacity of performance horses. A subsequent move to the USA enabled him to undertake an Internship in Equine Surgery at the Hagyard Equine Medical Institute in Kentucky and a Residency in Large Animal Surgery at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals in New York State.

After a role as Emergency Surgeon at the Equine Hospital of the Vetsuisse Fakultät, University of Bern in Switzerland, Tom returned to the RVC to pursue his clinical and research interests. Tom is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and the European College of Veterinary Surgeons and is a Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Recognised Specialist in Equine Surgery.


Tom developed an interest in the biomechanics of the equine athlete whilst an undergraduate in Veterinary Medicine at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC). During this time, he undertook research into the effects of shoe material on the biomechanics of foot-off in the horse.

Subsequently, his Horserace Betting Levy Board-funded PhD focused on the constraints to high-speed locomotion in the racehorse, and involved the development and validation of a suite of tools for determining limb load, trunk motion and animal velocity. These techniques enable the locomotion of a variety of species, including the horse, ostrich and camel, to be measured under ‘natural’ field conditions and form the basis of ongoing work at the Structure and Motion Lab. Key questions regarding the limitations to high-speed locomotion in the equine athlete, and how these relate to injury risk, remain unanswered, and these were the main focus of Tom's research at the RVC.

Upper respiratory tract diseases can result in critical performance limitations across all equine athletic disciplines. During his residency, Tom's research work at the Cornell University Equine Performance Testing Clinic focused on the biomechanics of surgical techniques for the treatment of dynamic upper respiratory tract obstruction. 


Tom's clinical interests lie in the area of general (soft tissue) surgery, including Equine, Farm Animal and Camelid species. In particular, through working at the Cornell University Equine Performance Testing Clinic he has developed a keen interest in upper respiratory tract surgery. A current focus is on refinement of the treatment of sinunasal disorders, including new techniques for dental extraction in the standing patient, and minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of diseases of the paranasal sinuses of the horse.

Selected Publications

See also:

E. Olsen, B. Dunkel, W.H.J. Barker, E.J.T. Finding, J.D. Perkins, T.H. Witte, L.J. Yates, K. Baiker, R.J. Piercy (2014) Rater Agreement on Gait Assessment during Neurologic Examination of Horses Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28(2), 630-638

T. Pfau, C. Spicer-Jenkins, R. Smith, D. Bolt, A. Fiske-Jackson, T.H. Witte (2014)
Identifying optimal parameters for quantification of changes in pelvic movement symmetry as a response to diagnostic analgesia in the hind limbs of horses (Equine Veterinary Journal, Epub ahead of print)

C. Koch, T.H. Witte (2014) Invited Clinical Commentary: Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in the horse Equine Veterinary Education26(3), 121-125

T.H. Witte, M. Wilke, C. Stahl, V. Jakesova, R. Haralambus, R. Straub (2013) Use of a hand-assisted laparoscopic surgical technique for closure of an extensive mesojejunal rent in a horse Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 243(8), 1166-1169

W. Barker, J. Perkins and T.H. Witte (2013) Three horses with bilateral sinonasal progressive haematomata not associated with the ethmoidal labyrinth. Equine Veterinary Education 25(10), 503–507

P. Gunning, A. Smith, V. Fox, D.M. Bolt, J. Lowe, C. Sinclair, T.H. Witte, R. Weller (2013)
Development and validation of an equine nerve block simulator to supplement practical skills training in undergraduate veterinary students. Veterinary Record 172(17), 450

Theriogenology question of the month RM Radcliffe, T.H. Witte, S.L. Fubini, N.G. Ducharme, S.H. Cheong & R.O. Gilbert (2012) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 241(4), 439-442 PMID: 22852567

Fungal sinusitis resulting in suspected trigeminal neuropathy as a cause of headshaking in five horses A.R. Fiske-Jackson, P.J. Pollock, T.H. Witte, L. Woolford & J.D. Perkins (2012) (Published online, Equine Veterinary Education)

Accuracy and precision of hind limb foot contact timings of horses determined using a pelvis-mounted inertial measurement unit S.D. Starke, T.H. Witte, S.A. May & T. Pfau (2012) Journal of biomechanics 45(8),1522-8 PMID 22483227

Intra-lesional insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) injection for the treatment of superficial digital flexor tendonitis in Thoroughbred racehorses: 40 cases (2000-2005) T.H. Witte, A.E. Yeager and A.J. Nixon (2011) 239(7), 992-997

Early diagnosis may hold the key to successful treatment of nasal and paranasal sinus neoplasia in the horse T.H. Witte & J.D. Perkins (2011) Equine Veterinary Education 23(9), 441-447

Association of owner-reported noise with findings during dynamic respiratory endoscopy in Thoroughbred racehorses Witte SHP, Witte TH, Harriss F, Kelly G & Pollock P. Equine Vet J. 2011 Jan;43(1):9-17. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00152.x. PubMed PMID: 21143628.

The complex role of veterinary clinical teachers: how is their role perceived and what is expected of them? Bolt DM, Witte TH, Lygo-Baker S. J Vet Med Educ. 2010 Winter;37(4):388-94. PubMed PMID: 21135407.

Equine Laryngoplasty Sutures Undergo Increased Loading During Coughing and Swallowing. Witte TH, Cheetham J, Soderholm LV, Mitchell LM, Ducharme NG.
Vet Surg. 2010 Dec;39(8):949-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2010.00742.x. Epub 2010
Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 21044095.

A transducer for measuring force on surgical sutures Witte TH, Cheetham J, Rawlinson JJ, Soderholm LV, Ducharme NG. Can J Vet Res. 2010 Oct;74(4):299-304. PubMed PMID: 21197230; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2949343.

Cytokine and catabolic enzyme expression in synovium, synovial fluid and articular cartilage of naturally osteoarthritic equine carpi. Kamm JL, Nixon AJ, Witte TH.
Equine Vet J. 2010 Nov;42(8):693-9. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00140.x. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Racing performance after combined prosthetic laryngoplasty and ipsilateral ventriculocordectomy or partial arytenoidectomy: 135 Thoroughbred racehorses competing at less than 2400 m (1997-2007). Witte TH, Mohammed HO, Radcliffe CH, Hackett RP, Ducharme NG. Equine Vet J. 2009 Jan;41(1):70-5. PubMed PMID: 19301585.

In vitro model for testing novel implants for equine laryngoplasty. Cheetham J, Witte TH, Soderholm LV, Hermanson JW, Ducharme NG. Vet Surg. 2008 Aug;37(6):588-93. PubMed PMID: 19134110.

Intra-articular stabilisation of the equine cricoarytenoid joint. Cheetham J, Witte TH, Rawlinson JJ, Soderholm LV, Mohammed HO, Ducharme NG. Equine Vet J. 2008 Sep;40(6):584-8. PubMed PMID: 18487098.

Gene therapy in musculoskeletal repair. Nixon AJ, Goodrich LR, Scimeca MS, Witte TH, Schnabel LV, Watts AE, Robbins PD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:310-27. Review. PubMed PMID: 18056051.

Effect of speed on stride parameters in racehorses at gallop in field conditions. Witte TH, Hirst CV, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2006 Nov;209(Pt 21):4389-97. PubMed PMID: 17050854.

Centre of mass movement and mechanical energy fluctuation during gallop locomotion in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Pfau T, Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2006 Oct;209(Pt 19):3742-57. PubMed PMID: 16985191.

A method for deriving displacement data during cyclical movement using an inertial sensor. Pfau T, Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;208(Pt 13):2503-14. PubMed PMID: 15961737.

Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground. Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Biomech. 2005 Aug;38(8):1717-22. PubMed PMID: 15958230.

Accuracy of non-differential GPS for the determination of speed over ground. Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Biomech. 2004 Dec;37(12):1891-8. PubMed PMID: 15519597.

Determination of peak vertical ground reaction force from duty factor in the horse (Equus caballus). Witte TH, Knill K, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2004 Oct;207(Pt 21):3639-48. PubMed PMID: 15371472.

Dr Lauren Sumner-Rooney

After an undergraduate degree in Biological Sciences at the University of Oxford, Lauren completed a PhD in evolutionary neurobiology in December 2015 at Queen's University Belfast. This work focussed on sensory and nervous systems and their evolution, with comparative anatomy, behaviour and phylogenetics forming core tools for her research. These skills, and a passion for anatomy and science communication, brought Lauren to Professor Hutchinson's group at the RVC. Outreach and communication formed a key part of her role at the RVC. Lauren responsible for communicating the work of Prof. Hutchinson's group and the Structure and Motion lab both within and beyond the RVC, organising events, working with schools and science outreach programmes. She also co-founded and ran an RVC blog focussed on anatomy and zoology, Anatomy To You (

Dr Huiling Tan

Huiling tan

Huiling works as a Postdoctural Research Associate in the Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford.


Huiling graduated with a BSc (Hons) from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China, in the field of Control Engineering. She started a project for her PhD in the University of Oxford in January 2003, conducting research on measurement uncertainties, sensor fusion and data processing. Huiling joined the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC in August 2006, working on a project designing wearable wireless sensors to monitor the performance of athletes in sprinting. Following this post, Huiling joined the University of Oxford in 2010 as a Research Fellow in Clinical Neuroscience.

Research Interests

  • uncertainty analysis
  • sensor fusion and signal processing
  • computer simulation and modelling of mechanical or biomechanical systems
  • model based control and fault detection



Cheng L, Tan H, Kuntze G, Bezodis IN, Hailes S, Kerwin DG, Wilson AM. A low-cost accurate speed tracking system for supporting sprint coaching. Journal of Sports Engineering & Technology (accepted for publication)

Bowtell MV, Tan H, Wilson AM. (2009) The consistency of maximum running speed measurements in humans using a feedback-controlled treadmill, and a comparison with maximum attainable speed during over ground locomotion. Journal of Biomechanics. 42(15):2569-74

Williams SB, Tan H, Usherwood JR, WILSON AM. (2009) Pitch then power: limitations to acceleration in quadrupeds. Biology Letters. 5(5):610-3 [pdf], [supplementary info] & [movie]


Tan H, Wilson AM. (2008). Measurement of stride parameters using a wearable GPS and inertial measurement unit. Journal of Biomechanics. 41: 1398-1406

Spence AJ, Tan H, Wilson AM. (2008) Accuracy of the TurfTrax Racing Data System for determination of speed and position. Equine Veterinary Journal. 40(7):680-3


Tan H, Dexter AL. (2006). Estimating airflow rates in air-handling units using actuator control signals. Building and Environment. 41(10) pp: 1291-1298.

Dr Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

Dr Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

Dimitrios is a Associate Researcher at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, University of Thessaly.


Dimitrios graduated with a BSc from the University of Thessaly, Greece, in the field of Sports Science. He started a project for his PhD in the Manchester Metropolitan University in September 2003 with Prof. Vasilios Baltzopoulos and Prof. Constantinos Maganaris. His PhD project was focused on in vivo human knee joint mechanics.

Dimitrios joined the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC in March 2008 for a short postdoc, completed December 2009. He worked with Dr John Hutchinson on a project building 3D musculoskeletal models of a elephant forelimbs and hindlimbs, and continues to collaborate on this and other projects. Dimitrios subsequently returned to the University of Thessaly as a Part time Lecturer .


Research Interests

  • Biomechanics of bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion
  • Computer Simulation and musculoskeletal modelling
  • Measurement of joint and musculotendon forces during dynamic activities.


  1. Maganaris, C. N., V. Baltzopoulos, and D. Tsaopoulos. 2006. Muscle fibre length-to-moment arm ratios in the human lower limb determined in vivo. Journal of biomechanics 39(9):1663-1668.
  2. Tsaopoulos, D. E., V. Baltzopoulos, and C. N. Maganaris. 2006. Human patellar tendon moment arm length: measurement considerations and clinical implications for joint loading assessment. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 21(7):657-667.
  3. Tsaopoulos, D. E., V. Baltzopoulos, P. J. Richards, and C. N. Maganaris. 2007. In vivo changes in the human patellar tendon moment arm length with different modes and intensities of muscle contraction. Journal of biomechanics 40(15):3325-3332.
  4. Tsaopoulos, D. E., C. N. Maganaris, and V. Baltzopoulos. 2007. Can the patellar tendon moment arm be predicted from anthropometric measurements? Journal of biomechanics 40(3):645-651.

Dr James Wakeling

Dr James Wakeling

James works as an Associate Professor for Simon Fraser University, Canada.


James studied for his PhD in insect aerodynamics at Cambridge and subsequently did postdoc research at St. Andrews into fish hydrodynamics and muscle physiology, and at Calgary into muscle recruitment during running. James started work at the RVC in 2004, where his research topics in locomotor biomechanics covered a range of mammalian species.

James left the RVC at the end of 2007 and to take up a post in Vancouver, Canada working in the School of Kinesiology at the Simon Fraser University.

Research directions

The role of different motor units to muscle function is poorly understood for locomotor tasks, and current research topics include establishing the link between different types of motor units and different movement tasks. One muscle task is the damping of soft-tissue vibrations which may be achieved by the preferential recruitment of a class of motor units. Being able to modify vibration input into a body through the altered design of shoes and equipment may thus play a role in athletic training and performance as well as in rehabilitation after injury.

The body interacts with external forces during movement, and these influence the muscle activity required for different tasks. For instance, using orthotic interventions can alter muscle activity patterns. It is thus possible that such interventions could be designed to cause specific changes in the muscle activity patterns with potential benefits to the relief of musculo-skeletal conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis.

Lameness in horses can be alleviated by a number of methods. The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of some treatments is insubstantial. We are currently developing objective and quantitative measures for the assessment of lameness which will be used to assess different treatment regimes.

Published papers

  1. Wakeling, J.M. & Hodgson, J. (1992). Optimisation of the flight speed of the little, common, and sandwich tern. J. exp. Biol. 169, 261-266.
  2. Wakeling, J.M. (1993). Dragonfly aerodynamics and unsteady mechanisms: a review. Odonatologica 22, 319-333.
  3. Wakeling, J.M. (1997). Odonatan wing and body morphologies. Odonatologica 26, 35-52.
  4. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight I. Gliding flight and steady-state aerodynamic forces. J. exp. Biol. 200, 543-556.
  5. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight II. Velocities, accelerations, and kinematics of flapping flight. J. exp. Biol. 200, 557-582.
  6. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight III. Lift and power requirements. J. exp. Biol. 200, 583-600.
  7. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1998). Muscle power output limits fast-start performance in fish. J. exp. Biol. 201, 1505-1526.
  8. Wakeling, J.M., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). The biomechanics of fast-starts during ontogeny in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. J. exp. Biol. 202, 3057-3067.
  9. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). Body bending during fast-starts in fish can be explained in terms of muscle torque and hydrodynamic resistance. J. exp. Biol. 202, 675-682.
  10. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). White muscle strain in the common carp and red to white muscle gearing ratios in fish. J. exp. Biol. 202, 521-528.
  11. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). Predicting muscle force generation during fast-starts for the common carp Cyprinus carpio. J. Comp. Physiol. B, 169, 391-401.
  12. Navas, C.A., James, R.S., Wakeling, J.M., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). An integrative study of the temperature dependence of whole animal and muscle performance during jumping and swimming in the frog Rana temperaria. J. comp. Physiol. B, 169, 588-596.
  13. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2000). Un supporto per lâ€Tarco. (The use of orthotics during physical activities, in Italian). Sport & Medicina. 5, 33-35.
  14. Wakeling, J.M. (2000). Computational methods for the analysis of swimming biomechanics. Experimental Biology Online. 5: 2, 87-96.
  15. Temple, G.K., Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (2000). Seasonal changes in fast-starts in the short-horn sculpin: integration of swimming behaviour and muscle performance. J. Fish Biol. 56, 1435-1449
  16. Wakeling, J.M., Cole, N.J., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (2000). The biomechanics and evolutionary significance of thermal acclimation in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Am. J. Physiol. 279, R657-R665.
  17. Wakeling, J.M., Pascual, S.A., Nigg, B.M. & von Tscharner, V. (2001). Surface EMG shows distinct populations of muscle activity when measured during sustained exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 40-47.
  18. Wakeling, J.M., von Tscharner, V., Nigg, B.M. & Stergiou. (2001). Muscle activity in the leg is tuned in response to ground reaction forces. J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 1307-1317.
  19. Nigg, B.M. & Wakeling, J.M. (2001). Impact forces and muscle tuning: a new paradigm. Exercise and Sports Sciences Review 29, 37-41.
  20. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2001). Modification of soft tissue vibrations in the leg by muscular activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 412-420].
  21. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2001). Soft tissue vibrations in the quadriceps measured with skin mounted transducers. J. Biomech. 34, 539-543.
  22. Wakeling, J.M. (2001). Biomechanics of fast-start swimming in fish. Comp. Biochem Physiol A, 131, 31-40.
  23. Wakeling, J.M., & Syme, D.A. (2002). Wave properties of action potentials from fast and slow motor units. Muscle Nerve 26, 659-668.
  24. Fernandez, D.A., Calvo, J., Wakeling, J.M., Vanella, F.A. & Johnston, I.A. (2002). Escape performance in the sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus. Polar Biology 25, 914-920.
  25. Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M. & Rozitis, A.I. (2002). Muscle activity in the lower extremity damps the soft-tissue vibrations which occur in response to pulsed and continuous vibrations. J. Appl. Physiol. 93: 1093-1103.
  26. Wakeling, J.M., Pascual, S.A. & Nigg, B.M. (2002). Altering muscle activity in the lower extremities by running with different shoes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34(9), 1529-1532.
  27. Wakeling, J.M., Kaya, M., Temple, G.K., Johnston, I.A. & Herzog, W. (2002). Determining patterns of motor recruitment during locomotion. J. exp. Biol. 205, 359-369.
  28. Wakeling, J.M., Liphardt, A-M. & Nigg, B.M. (2003). Muscle activity reduces soft-tissue resonance at heel-strike during walking. J. Biomech. 36, 1761-1769.
  29. Wakeling, J.M. & Rozitis A.I. (2004). Spectral properties of myoelectric signals from different motor units distinguished during ramped contractions of the leg extensors. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 2519-2528.
  30. Wakeling, J.M. (2004). Motor units are recruited in a task dependent fashion during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3883-3890.
  31. Wakeling, J.M. & Rozitis A.I. (2005). Motor unit recruitment during vertebrate locomotion. Animal Biology, 55, 41-58.
  32. Mundermann, A., Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M., Humble, R.N. & Stefanyshyn, D.J. (2005). Foot orthotics affect frequency components of muscle activity in the lower extremity. Gait Posture. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2005.03.004
  33. Wakeling, J.M. (2005). Fast-start mechanics. In: Fish Biomechanics: Fish Physiology vol. 23 (eds. G.Lauder & R. Shadwick), Academic Press, London, pp333-368.
  34. Wakeling, J.M. & Liphardt, A-M. (2005). Short communication: Task specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping. J. Biomech. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.03.009 .
  35. Nurse, M.A., Hulliger, M., Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M. & Stefanyshyn, D.J. (2005) Changing the texture of footwear can alter gait patterns. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 15, 496-506.
  36. Cardinale, M. & Wakeling, J.M. (2005). Whole body vibration exercise. Are vibrations good for you? Invited B. J. Sports Med. 39, 585-589.
  37. Wakeling, J.M., Uehli, K., Rozitis, A.I. (2006). Muscle fibre recruitment can respond to the mechanics of the muscle contraction. Roy. Soc. Interface. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2006. 0113.

Dr Alexis Wiktorowicz Conroy

Alexis Wiktorowicz pursues a marine life


Alexis graduated with a biology degree from the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) in 2002. She pursued her interests in marine biology and comparative physiology, working with Terrie M Williams on seasonal differences in bottlenose dolphin blubber characteristics.

Inspired by the interaction between physiology and ecology, Alexis worked on her PhD with Malcolm S Gordon at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Here she studied the biomechanics and kinematics of swimming pufferfishes, which entailed examining locomotion patterns and measuring recoil movements and drag forces. Her collaborators included Dean Lauritzen, Mori Gharib (Caltech),Jay Hove (University of Cincinnati), Hao Liu (Chiba University, Japan) and John Dabiri (Caltech).

Alexis joined the Structure & Motion Lab in January 2008 to explore the field of terrestrial biomechanics. At present Alexis is working on the influence of locomotor behaviour on appendicular skeleton organisation at the macro and micro-structural levels.

Research Interests

  • Comparative and ecological physiology
  • Biomechanics of locomotion and manoeuvrability
  • Energetics
  • Flow visualisation (DPIV) and computational fluid dynamics.


Doube, M., Klosowski, M.M., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., Hutchinson, J.R., and S. Shefelbine. 2010. Scaling of bone trabeculae in birds and mammals maintains bone strain. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. March 9, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0069

Pfau, T., Hinton, E., Whitehead, C., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., and J.R. Hutchinson. 2010. Temporal gait parameters in the alpaca and the evolution of pacing and trotting locomotion in the Camelidae. Journal of Zoology. Volume 283, Issue 3, pages 193-202, March 2011

Doube, M., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., Christiansen, P., Hutchinson, J.R., and S. Shefelbine. 2009. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid bone allometry. PLoS ONE. 4:e4742. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004742.

GORDON, M.S., LAURITZEN, D.V., and WIKTOROWICZ, A.M. (2008) Passive Mechanisms Controlling Posture and Trajectory in Swimming Fishes. In Biomechanisms of Swimming and Flying, ISABMEC (ed. N. Kato). Tokyo, Japan: Springer. Pg. 53-65.

WIKTOROWICZ, A.M., LAURITZEN, D.V., and GORDON, M.S. (2007) Passive and Powered Control Mechanisms Contributing to Smooth, Dynamically Stable Swimming in Pufferfishes. Experiments in Fluids. (43) 725-735.

GORDON, M.S., LAURITZEN, D.V., and WIKTOROWICZ, A.M. (2007) Unrecognized Passive Controls of Posture and Trajectory in Many Actively Swimming Aquatic Animals. The Proceedings of the Seventeenth (2007) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, ISOPE. Lisbon, Portugal. July 1-6, 2007. (2) 1138-1142.

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