See also PhD Alumni who are listed separately.

Professor Roger Woledge

Professor Woledge sadly passed away in March 2015. For any queries regarding his work or any upcoming publications please contact Professor Alan Wilson, Professor Nancy Curtin or Dr Tim West.  


RCW obtained his BSc in Physiology in 1959 at University College London followed by research training with A.V.Hill 1959-62. He remained in UCL Physiology until his retirement in 2003, being Head of Dept (1988-1994) and Director of Institute of Human Performance in Stanmore (1994-2013). Since retirement he continued research work at Imperial College (until 2010), at Kings College London, at Queen Mary University London and more recently at the RVC (until 2015).


RCW's research concerns muscle contraction and in particular in-vitro measurement of the energetic cost of muscular activity. Since 1973 this research has been in collaboration with Prof N.A.Curtin (qv). They have investigated the muscle energetics of a number of different vertebrates (Frog, Tortoise, Lizard, Eel, Dogfish, Mouse) and sought theoretical explanations using crossbridge theories. Since 1985 RCW has been collaborating with Dr S.A. Bruce on investigations of human muscle strength and the weakness caused by age and hormonal status.

Selected Publications

Song W, Vikhorev PG, Kashyap MN, Rowlands C, Ferenczi MA, Woledge RC, MacLeod K, Marston S, Curtin NA. (2013) Mechanical and energetic properties of papillary muscle from ACTC E99K transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. Jun 1;304(11):H1513-24.

West TG, Toepfer CN, Woledge RC, Curtin NA, Rowlerson A, Kalakoutis M, Hudson P, Wilson AM. (2013) Power output of skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). J Exp Biol. Aug 1;216(Pt 15):2974-82.

Bieles JS, Bruce SA, Woledge RC. (2012) Menopause alters temperature sensitivity of muscle force in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. Mar;112(3):1117-22

Park-Holohan S, Linari M, Reconditi M, Fusi L, Brunello E, Irving M, Dolfi M, Lombardi V, West TG, Curtin NA, Woledge RC, Piazzesi G. (2012) Mechanics of myosin function in white muscle fibres of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. J Physiol. 590, 1973-1988.

Bickham DC, West TG, Webb MR, Woledge RC, Curtin NA, Ferenczi MA. (2011) Millisecond-scale biochemical response to change in strain. Biophys J. 2011 Nov 16;101(10):2445-54.

Barclay CJ, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2010) Is the efficiency of mammalian (mouse) skeletal muscle temperature dependent? J Physiol. 588(Pt 19):3819-31.

Barclay, C.J., Woledge, R.C. & Curtin, N.A. (2010). Inferring crossbridge properties from skeletal muscle energetics. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 102, 53-71.

Park-Holohan, S.-J., West, T.G., Woledge, R.C., Ferenczi, M.A., Barclay, C.J. & Curtin, N.A. (2010). Effect of phosphate and temperature on force exerted by white muscle fibres from dogfish. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 31, 35-44.

Mottram SL, Woledge RC, Morrissey D. (2009) Motion analysis study of a scapular orientation exercise and subjects' ability to learn the exercise. Man Ther 14 13-18.

Barclay, C.J., Woledge, R.C. & Curtin, N.A. (2009). Effects of UCP3 genotype, temperature and muscle type on energy turnover of resting mouse skeletal muscle. Pflugers Arch. (European Journal of Physiology) 457, 857-864. doi: 10.1007/s00424-008-0552-z.

Woledge, R.S., Barclay, C.J. & Curtin, N.A. (2009). Temperature change as a probe of muscle crossbridge kinetics: a review and discussion. Proceeding of the Royal Society B 276, 2685-2695.

Morrissey D, Morrissey MC, Driver W, King JB, Woledge RC. (2008) Manual landmark identification and tracking during the medial rotation test of the shoulder: an accuracy study using three-dimensional ultrasound and motion analysis measures. Man Ther 6 529-535.

Barclay CJ, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2007) Energy turnover for Ca2+ cycling in skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 28 259-274.

Onambele GN, Bruce SA, Woledge RC. (2006) Oestrogen status in relation to the early training responses in human thumb adductor muscles. Acta Physiol 188 41-52.

West TG, Ferenczi MA, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. Influence of ionic strength on the time-course of force development and Pi release by dogfish muscle fibres. J Physiol. 2005

Woledge RC, Birtles DB, Newham DJ. (2005) The variable component of lateral body sway during walking in young and older humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 11 1463-8.

Curtin NA, Woledge RC, Aerts P. (2005) Muscle directly meets the vast power demands in agile lizards. Proc Roy Soc Biol Sci. 272, 581-584.

West TG, Curtin NA, Ferenczi MA, He ZH, Sun YB, Irving M, Woledge RC. (2004) Actomyosin energy turnover declines while force remains constant during isometric muscle contraction. J Physiol. 555, 27-43.

James L, Onambele G, Woledge R, Skelton D, Woods D, Eleftheriou K, Hawe E, Humphries SE, Haddad F, Montgomery H. (2004) IL-6-174G/C genotype is associated with the bone mineral density response to oestrogen replacement therapy in post-menopausal women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 92 227-30

Onambele GLN, Bruce SA & Woledge RC (2004) Effects of voluntaryactivation level on force exerted by human adductor pollicis muscle during rapid stretches PflugersArch - Eur J Physiol 448,457–461

Curtin NA, West TG, Ferenczi MA, He ZH, Sun YB, Irving M, Woledge RC. (2003) Rate of actomyosin ATP hydrolysis diminishes during isometric contraction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 538, 613-626.

Morrish GM, Woledge RC, Haddad FS. (2003) Activity in three parts of the quadriceps recorded isometrically at two different knee angles and during a functional exercise. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol.43 , 259-65.

Galantis A. & Woledge R.C. (2003) Theoretical limit to the power output of a muscle-tendon complex with inertial and gravitational loads. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 1493-1498.

Linari M, Woledge RC, Curtin NA. (2003) Energy storage during stretch of active single fibres from frog skeletal muscle. J Physiol.;548, 461-74.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (2002) Isometric and isovelocity contractile performance of red muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 205, 1585-1595.

Bernstein I.A., Webber O. & Woledge R. (2002) An ergonomic comparison of rowing machine designs: possible implications for safety. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 108-112.

Woledge R.C. (2001) Douglas Robert Wilkie. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London, 47, 481-495.

Bruce S.A., Birtles D.B., Gentles H., Rosenberg M.E. & Woledge R.C. (2001) Corrective strategies to a standardised trip in young and older subjects. Age and Ageing, 30, Suppl. 4, 47.

Pearson S.J., Harridge S.D., Grieve D.W., Young A. & Woledge R.C. (2001) A variable inertial system for measuring the contractile properties of human muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 2072-2076.

Woods D., Onambele G., Woledge R., Skelton D., Bruce S., Humphries S. & Montgomery H. (2001) Ace genotype-dependent benefit from HRT in isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 2200-2204.

Onambele N.G.L., Woods D., Skelton D.A., Bruce S.A., Woledge R.C., Humphreys S.E. & Montgomery H. (2001) Possible genetic influences on responses to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women. Journal of Physiology (London), 531, 38P.

Woods D., Onambele G., Woledge R., Skelton D., Bruce S., Humphries S. & Montgomery H. The ACE I/D polymorphism and the response to hormone replacement therapy. abstract

Onambele N.G.L., Skelton D.A., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2001) Follow up study of the benefits of hormone replacement therapy on isometric muscle strength of adductor pollicis in postmenopausal women. Clinical Science, 100, 421-422.

Bruce S.A., Birtles D.B., Gentles H., Rosenberg M.E. & Woledge R.C. 2000) Differences between older and younger human subjects in corrective responses to a standardised trip. Journal of Physiology (London), 525, 46P.

Christopoulou E.E., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) The role of muscle strength in sit-to-stand strategies in women. Journal of Physiology (London), 523, 238P.

Brockbank C.L., Chatterjee F., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) Heart rate and its variability change after the menopause. Experimental Physiology, 85, 327-330

Lou F., van Der Laarse W.J., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (2000) Heat production and oxygen consumption during metabolic recovery of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 1201-1210.

Curtin N.A., Woledge R.C. & Bone Q. (2000) Energy storage by passive elastic structures in the mantle of sepia officinalis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 203, 869-878.

Skelton D.A., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A., Naylor C.H. & Woledge R.C. (1999) Hormone replacement therapy increases muscle strength of adductor pollicis in postmenopausal women. Clinical Science, 96, 357-364.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1999) Elastic energy storage and release in white muscle from dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202, 135-142.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Shortening during stimulation vs. during relaxation. How do the costs compare? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 453, 545-553; discussion 553-555

Woledge R.C. (1998) Muscle energetics during unfused tetanic contractions. Modelling the effects of series elasticity. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 453, 545-553; discussion 543-544

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Contraction with shortening during stimulation or during relaxation: how do the energetic costs compare? Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, 19, 797-802.

Skelton D.A., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A., Naylor C.H. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Hormone replacement therapy increases muscle strength. Journal of Physiology (London), 506, 105P.

McGoldrick T., Phillips S.K., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Changes in isometric force of mouse soleus muscle during the oestrous cycle. Pflügers Archiv, 437, 70-73.

Phillips S.K., Woledge R.C., Bruce S.A., Young A., Levy D., Yeo A. & Martin F.C. (1998) A study of force and cross-sectional area of adductor pollicis muscle in female hip fracture patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 999-1002.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1998) Distinguishing metabolic heat from condensation heat during muscle recovery. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201 2553-2558.

Taylor S.J., Walker P.S., Perry J.S., Cannon S.R. & Woledge R. (1998) The forces in the distal femur and the knee during walking and other activities measured by telemetry. Journal of Arthroplasty 13, 428-437.

Woledge R.C. (1998) Possible effects of fatigue on muscle efficiency. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 162, 267-273.

Curtin N.A. Gardener-Medwin A.R., & Woledge R.C. (1998) Predictions of the time course of force and power output by dogfish white muscle fibres during brief tetani. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 103-114.

Buschman H.P., Linari M., Elzinga G. & Woledge R.C. (1997) Mechanical and energy characteristics during shortening in isolated type-1 muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis studied at maximal and submaximal activation. Pflugers Archiv, 435, 145-150.

Morrish G.M. & Woledge R.C. (1997) A comparison of the activation of muscles moving the patella in normal subjects and in patients with chronic patellofemoral problems. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 29, 43-48.

Bruce S.A., Phillips S.K. & Woledge R.C. (1997) Interpreting the relation between force and cross-sectional area in human muscle. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 677-683

Curtin N.A. Kushmerick M.J., Wiseman R.W., & Woledge R.C. (1997) Recovery after contraction of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 1061-1071.

Lou F., Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1997) The energetic cost of activation of white muscle fibres from the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200, 495-501.

Buschman H.P., Elzinga G. & Woledge R.C. (1996) The effects of level of activation and shortening velocity on energy output in type 3 muscle fibress from Xenopus laevis. Pflugers Archiv, 433, 153-9.

Phillips S.K., Sanderson A.G., Birch K., Bruce S.A. & Woledge R.C. (1996) Changes in maximum voluntary force of human adductor pollicis muscle during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Physiology (London), 496, 551-557

Phillips S.K., Levy D., Yeo A. Woledge R.C., Bruce S.A., Martin F.C., & Young A. (1996) A comparison of adductor pollicis muscle strength in healthy young women, healthy elderly women and female hip fracture patients. Journal of Physiology (London), 494, 134P.

Curtin N.A. & Woledge R.C. (1996) Power at the expense of efficiency in contraction of white muscle fibres from dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199, 593-601.

Bruce S., Woledge R. & Phillips S. (1996) Muscle strength and oestrogen status. Age and Ageing, 25, 81-82.

Dr Vivian Allen


Viv earned his BA in Archaeology and Geology in 2004 from the University of Bristol, and stayed there another year to study for an MSc in Palaeobiology, supervised by Prof. Michael Benton, where he did his thesis project on dinosaur biomechanics.

Interest in biomechanics led Viv to study for a PhD, supervised by John Hutchinson at the RVC's Structure and Motion Laboratory, in the functional evolution of the hindlimb in theropod dinosaurs. 

Subsequently, Viv accepted a postdoc position at the Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena (Germany), studying the mechanics of sprawling locomotion in lizards and crocodiles. He returned to the UK to a postdoc position back at the RVC's Structure and Motion Laboratory, working on the biomechanics of sesamoid bones. 


Viv's research project aimed to understand the biomechanics underlying sesamoid bone formation, using the patella of mammals, lizards and birds as a model. The goal was to use a combination of muscle-tendon force simulation and finite element modelling to predict loads and load patterns present in the patella tendon, both with and without a mechanically discrete patella or similar structure, to determine if sesamoid formation can be associated with a particular stress concentration or regime.

Selected Publications

Allen V, Ellsey R, Jones N, Wright J, Hutchinson JR (2010) Functional specialisation and ontogenetic scaling of limb anatomy in Alligator mississippiensis. Journal of Anatomy 216: 423-445.

Allen V, Paxton H, Hutchinson JR (2009) Variation in center of mass estimates for extant sauropsids and its importance in for reconstructing inertial properties of extinct archosaurs. Anatomical Record 292: 1442-1461.

Hutchinson JR, Allen V (2009) The evolutionary continuum of limb function from early theropods to birds. Naturwissenschaften 96: 423-448.

Pontzer H, Allen V, Hutchinson JR (2009) Biomechanics of running indicates endothermy in bipedal dinosaurs. PLoS One 4: e7783.

Dr Ida Bailey

In 2012 Dr Bailey began a Postdoctural Research Assistant Role with the Healy lab at the University of St-Andrews, investigating the role of cognition in bird nest building behaviour.


Dr Bailey completed her PhD in March 2010, having worked under the supervision of Dr Sue Healy, in the Institute of Evolutionary Biology at the University of Edinburgh. Following this, she began her work as a postdoc with the Structure and Motion Lab between December 2011 and April 2012. She worked with Professor Alan Wilson on the CARDyAL project, investigating factors influencing group movements and cooperative behaviours. 

Selected Publications

Bailey, IE, Morgan, K, Bertin, M, Meddle, SL & Healy, SD 2014 'Physical cognition: birds learn the structural efficacy of nest material' Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol 281, no. 1784, 20133225

Bailey, IE, Segelbacher, G, Healy, SD, Hurly, TA & Pemberton, JM 2013 'Microsatellite variation in Rufous Hummingbirds (Selaphorus rufus) and evidence for a weakly structured population' Journal of Ornithology, vol 154, no 4, pp1029-1037

Bailey, I, Myatt, JP & Wilson, AM 2013 'Group hunting within the Carnivora: physiological, cognitive and environmental influences on strategy and cooperation' Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, vol 67, no 1, pp 1-17

Dr Jean De Barros


Jean is now a Research Associate for the Department of Computer Science, University College London.


Jean worked in the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC with Professor Alan Wilson.

Dr Peter Bishop

After leaving the RVC in October 2020, Peter started a position as a postdoctoral researcher with Stephanie Pierce at Harvard University. 

Peter worked as a postdoctoral researcher on the ERC-funded DAWNDINOS project with Prof. John Hutchinson. His research involved integrating comparative, experimental and computational biomechanics approaches with palaeontology, to address questions surrounding locomotor evolution and performance in Triassic archosaurs, including dinosaurs.


Originally from Australia, Peter has had a lifelong passion for palaeontology, geology and mathematics. He gained a BAppSc (Hons) in Geoscience from the Queensland University of Technology in 2012, and then completed his PhD in Evolutionary Biomechanics from Griffith University in 2017, having studied the biomechanics of terrestrial locomotion in theropods and its evolution of the line to modern birds. From 2007–2018, Peter also volunteered (including undertaking research and field work) at the Geosciences Program of the Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia.


Peter is interested in all aspects of vertebrate palaeobiology. He is particularly interested in integrating biomechanics with data from fossils and modern animals, using a rigorous, physics-based approach to understand the biology of extinct vertebrates, and to examine the adaptive significance of evolutionary changes in the vertebrate skeleton. His focus is currently directed towards locomotion and the appendicular skeleton (limbs/fins and girdles). Being at the physical interface between an organism and its environment, these types of systems are strongly influenced by the principles of physics and so are more amenable to quantitative, mechanical analysis. His extinct study species have to date ranged from stem tetrapods to giant birds, dinosaurs and lizards, but he has also conducted comparative work with modern birds and lizards.

Peter is also an Honorary Research Fellow with the Geosciences Program of the Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia.


Bishop, P.J., Hocknull, S.A., Clemente, C.J., Hutchinson, J.R., Farke, A.A., Barrett, R.S. and Lloyd, D.G. 2018. Cancellous bone architecture and theropod dinosaur locomotor biomechanics. Part III – reconstructing posture and locomotor biomechanics in extinct theropods, and its evolution on the line to birds. PeerJ 6: e5777.

Bishop, P.J., Hocknull, S.A., Clemente, C.J., Hutchinson, J.R. Barrett, R.S. and Lloyd, D.G. 2018. Cancellous bone architecture and theropod dinosaur locomotor biomechanics. Part II – a new approach to reconstructing posture and locomotor biomechanics in extinct tetrapod vertebrates. PeerJ 6: e5779.

Bishop, P.J., Hocknull, S.A., Clemente, C.J., Hutchinson, J.R., Farke, A.A., Beck, B.R., Barrett, R.S. and Lloyd, D.G. 2018. Cancellous bone architecture and theropod dinosaur locomotor biomechanics. Part I – the potential utility of cancellous bone, with a comparative study of cancellous bone architecture in the hindlimb bones of theropods. PeerJ 6: e5778.

Bishop, P.J., Graham, D.F., Lamas, L.P., Hutchinson, J.R., Rubenson, J., Hancock, J.A., Wilson, R.S., Hocknull, S.A., Barrett, R.S., Lloyd, D.G. and Clemente, C.J. 2018. The influence of speed and size on avian terrestrial locomotor biomechanics: Predicting locomotion in extinct theropod dinosaurs. PLOS ONE 13: e0192172.

Clemente, C.J., Bishop, P.J., Newman, N. and Hocknull, S.A. 2018. Steady bipedal locomotion with a forward situated whole-body centre of mass: the potential importance of temporally asymmetric ground reaction forces. Journal of Zoology 304: 193–201.

Bishop, P.J., Clemente, C.J., Weems, R.E., Graham, D.F., Lamas, L.P., Hutchinson, J.R., Rubenson, J., Wilson, R.S., Hocknull, S.A., Barrett, R.S. and Lloyd, D.G. 2017. Using step width to compare locomotor biomechanics between extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs and modern obligate bipeds. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 14: 20170276.

Bishop, P.J. 2016. A critical re-evaluation of the hindlimb myology of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 59: 187–246.

Bishop, P.J., Walmsley, C. W., Phillips, M. J., Quayle, M. R., Boisvert, C. A. and McHenry, C. R. 2015. Oldest Pathology in a Tetrapod Bone Illuminates the Origin of Terrestrial Vertebrates. PLOS ONE 10: e0125723.

Bishop, P.J. 2014. The humerus of Ossinodus pueri, a stem tetrapod from the Carboniferous of Gondwana, and the early evolution of the tetrapod forelimb. Alcheringa 38: 209–238.

Bishop, P.J. 2010. A Triassic conchostracan from near Murgon, SEQ. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 55: 8–9.


Peter greatly enjoys the opportunity to educate others, promote science and mathematics, and inspire people’s interest in the natural world. In Australia he was involved with many varied forms of public engagement activity, including public talks (some involving >1,000 people a day), specimen-based demonstrations, popular science articles and television and radio programs. In the DAWNDINOS project at the RVC, Peter has been involved in various activities showcasing palaeontology, biomechanics and science in general to school students, including both school-based and on-campus events.

Dr Yvonne Blum

Yvonne Blum

Yvonne was a postdoctoral researcher in the Structure and Motion Laboratory, investigating the principles of bipedal locomotion in uneven terrain. She is now working as a Training Engineer at MathWorks in Munich.



12/2010                     PhD at the Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena
Topic of the PhD thesis: Biomechanical Models and Stability Analysis of Bipedal Running

05/2005                     Diploma (equivalent to MSc) in physics at the University of Jena
Topic of the diploma thesis: Dynamics of Charged Spinning Particles in post-Coulomb Approximation of Higher Order

Work Experience

11/2010 – 08/2013     Postdoctoral researcher at the Structure and Motion Lab

12/2005 – 10/2010     Research assistant at the Locomotion Laboratory, University of Jena

08/2005 – 11/2005     Research assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF FhG), Jena

11/2002 – 05/2005     Student assistant at the Department of Physics, University of Jena

09/2000 – 08/2002     Student assistant at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF FhG), Jena


Yvonne's research with the RVC focused on the development and investigation of control strategies for legged locomotion. During her time at the RVC, she was part of Dr Monica Daley's research team and collaborated with the Dynamic Robotics Laboratory at the Oregon State University. The aim of this collaboration is to test bioinspired models that are based on experimental data of ground birds as control targets for a bipedal robot. This project is funded by the Human Frontier Science Program (HFSP).

Selected Publications

Blum Y, Birn-Jeffery A, Daley M A, Seyfarth A, Does A Crouched Leg Posture Enhance Running Stability and Robustness?, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 281(1): 97-106, 2011

Rummel J, Blum Y, Seyfarth A, Robust and Efficient Walking with Spring-like Legs, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics5(4): 046004, 2010

Blum Y, Lipfert SW, Rummel J, Seyfarth A, Swing Leg Control in Human Running, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics5(2): 026006, 2010

Rummel J, Blum Y, Maus HM, Rode C, Seyfarth A, Stable and Robust Walking with Compliant Legs, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2010: 5250-5255, 2010

Blum Y, Lipfert SW, Seyfarth A, Effective Leg Stiffness in Running, Journal of Biomechanics42(16): 2400-2405, 2009

Rummel J, Blum Y, Seyfarth A, From Walking to Running, Autonome Mobile Systeme 2009, Dillmann R, Beyerer J, Stiller C, Zöllner JM, Gindele T (Eds.) Springer: 89-96, 2009

Blum Y, Rummel J, Seyfarth A, Advanced Swing Leg Control for Stable Locomotion, Autonome Mobile Systeme 2007, Berns K, Luksch T (Eds.), Springer: 301-307, 2007

Mr Chris Buse


Chris left university in 1987 to become an electronics engineer in commercial pre-press imaging. He then progressed into embedded software, with some Unix application development, before moving to a networking company and continuing into PC and Linux device drivers including application software development using C, Perl and C++.  

Chris joined the RVC in 2012, and enjoyed developing software (in Perl/R) for the LOCATE project. His code was used extensively for data exploration and visualisation purposes, as well as various functions for supporting our Okavango aerial survey. He has also developed embedded C/C++ code for APM and DJI UAVs, a 3 axis gimbal control system based on DJI's onboard SDK, synchronisation and transfer technologies for a surveillance forceplate system, as well as a geo-oriented, 8 channel high sample rate flow sensing logger.

Selected Publications

Jordan, N.R., Buse C., Wilson, A.M., Golabek, K.A., Apps, P.J., Lowe, J.C., Van der Weyde, L.K., McNutt, J.W. Dynamics of direct inter-pack encounters in endangered African wild dogs. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71(8), 115, 2017.

Harvey, R. J., Roskilly, K., Buse, C., Evans, H. K., Hubel, T. Y. and Wilson, A. M. (2016). Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system. Journal of Experimental Biology 219, 2687-2692 (doi:10.1242/jeb.139022), 2016.

Kyle Chadwick

Following his position with the RVC, Kyle now works as a Motion Lab Engineer at the Los Angeles Children's Hospital, providing gait analysis for children with cerebral palsy. 


In May 2013, Kyle obtained his BSc in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Virginia. While at UVA Kyle performed research in the Multiscale Muscle Mechanics Lab, supervised by Silvia Blemker, where he studied the biomechanics of Batoid rays.

In September 2013, Kyle came to the RVC Structure & Motion Laboratory to take his current position as biomechanics research technician, supervised by John Hutchinson. Kyle is assisting with research on the evolutionary biomechanics of sesamoid bones in vertebrate limbs.

In October 2013, Kyle also began an MRes researching the sesamoid bones in ostrich knees to better understand the mechanical stimuli behind sesamoid development. For more information on Kyle, see his personal website


Chadwick KP, Regnault S, Allen V, Hutchinson JR. (2014). Three-dimensional anatomy of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) knee joint. PeerJ 2:e706 

Dr Sandra Corr

Sandra and another cat

Sandra is a Clinical Reader in Small Animal Surgery at the University of Nottingham. 


Graduated from Glasgow University Veterinary School and worked in small animal and equine practice in the UK for 6 years before taking a post as a lecturer in surgery at the University of Zimbabwe. Sandra then returned to the UK to do a PhD in gait analysis at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, followed by a 3 year Residency in orthopaedic surgery at Glasgow University. She joined the clinical department of the RVC in November 2002, where she was employed as a Lecturer in Small Animal Surgery. 


Sandra's main interests are in clinical orthopaedics and developing advanced motion analysis techniques for the investigation of clinical problems and assessment of surgical outcomes. Most of all she enjoys working with big cats. 

Dr Andrew Cuff

After leaving the RVC in August 2019, Andrew started a position as an associate lecturer at Hull York Medical School.


Andrew graduated from the University of Bristol in 2010 with an MSci in Palaeontolgy and Evolution. He continued his research at the University of Bristol and completed his PhD on biomechanics of ornithomimosaurs in early 2014 before taking up a Levhulme Postdoctorate position at UCL and the Royal Veterinary College working on felids in 2014. He started on his postdoctoral role with Professor John Hutchinson in 2016.


At the RVC, Andrew worked on a large ERC project testing whether bipedalism (and the associated suite of traits) in early dinosauriforms granted them improved locomotor performance (particularly jumping, standing and straight line efficiency and speed) compared to the bipedal and quadrupedal pseudosuchians - but at a cost of reduced ability to turn quickly. This project involved working with live animals, anatomical dissections, and computer modelling of both extant and extinct animals in our attempts to understand the locomotion of these Triassic archosaurs. Andrew has previously worked on the evolution and locomotion of felids, as well as cranial evolution across a range of dinosaurs and implications for dietary changes.


Cuff AR, Goswami A, Hutchinson JR. 2017. The 3D reconstruction of the extinct North American lion, Panthera atroxPaleontologia Electronica 20.2.23A.

Cuff AR, Sparkes EL, Randau M, Pierce SE, Kitchener AR, Gosawmi A, Hutchinson JR, 2016. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles. Journal of Anatomy 229, 128-141.

Cuff AR, Sparkes EL, Randau M, Pierce SE, Kitchener AR, Gosawmi A, Hutchinson JR, 2016. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles. Journal of Anatomy 229, 142-152.

Cuff AR, Bright JA, Rayfield EJ, 2015. Validation of the finite element method in an avian (Struthio camelus) skull. PeerJ 3, e1294

Cuff AR, Rayfield EJ, 2015. Retrodeformation and muscular reconstruction of ornithomimosaurian dinosaur crania. PeerJ 3, e1093

Cuff AR, Randau M, Head J, Hutchinson JR, Pierce SE, Goswami A, 2015. Big cat, small cat: Reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28, 1516-1525.

Cuff AR, Rayfield EJ, 2013. Feeding Mechanics in Spinosaurid Theropods and Extant Crocodilians. PLoS ONE 8(5): e65295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065295

Becky Diack


Becky studied a BSc (Hons) Bioveterinary Sciences degree here at RVC and graduated in 2013. During her final year she undertook a research project in the Structure and Motion Laboratory on 'The mechanical properties of single skeletal muscle fibres in broiler hens across ontogeny' supervised by Prof. John Hutchinson and Dr. Tim West. Becky returned to RVC in Janurary 2014 as a Research Technician on the LOCATE Project. 


Becky's role involves using a Temperature-jump method of activation (Aurora Scientific) to measure mechanical properties of single skeletal muscle fibres. Single fibre mechanics are carried out in parallel with whole muscle mechanics studied by Prof. Nancy Curtin and Prof. Roger Woledge. 

Dr Oliver Dewhirst


Oliver graduated from the University of Sussex in 1999 with a B.Eng (Hons) degree in Mechatronics. He was then employed by the University of Reading as a Teaching Company Associate on a two-year Government funded partnership between the University and Fulcrum Systems Ltd to research and develop microphone array technology. Oliver was awarded his M.Sc. in Engineering Research from the University of Reading in 2002 (Dissertation: “Development of Microphone Array Technology for Speech Applications”).

From 2003 until 2006, Oliver worked as a design engineer for Radix Systems Ltd who manufacture optical sorting and inspection machines for the food industry. He was responsible for the design and implementation of a graphical user interface to control the operation of optical food sorting systems and research and development of image processing algorithms for defect and foreign body identification. He was also responsible for machine installation, operator training and support.

In 2006 Oliver returned to academia to study for his Ph.D at the University of Southampton’s Institute of Sound and Vibration Research. Here he developed and applied nonlinear mathematical modelling methods to investigate the neuromuscular elements of invertebrate hind limb control. He continued working in this field as a postdoctoral researcher at Southampton University’s School of Biological Sciences (2010 – 2012).

Oliver joined the Structure and Motion Laboratory at The RVC in January 2013 as a postdoctoral researcher on the LOCATE project.


Oliver is particularly interested in signal and image processing algorithm development for application to biological systems. His research interests include:

  • Gait classification of wild animals using motion sensing (accelerometer) signals obtained from collars  
  • Methods to identify group hunting strategies of wild animals using GPS data obtained from tracking collars
  • Nonlinear system identification
  • Invertebrate neuromuscular limb control

Selected Publications

A.M. Wilson, T.Y. Hubel, S.D. Wilshin, J.C. Lowe, M. Lorenc, O.P. Dewhirst, et al. Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala. Nature 554 (7691),183-189, 2018.

T.Y. Hubel, J.P. Myatt, N.R. Jordan, O.P. Dewhirst, J.W. McNutt, A.M. Wilson. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs. Nature communications 7, 11034, 2016.

T.Y. Hubel, J.P. Myatt, N.R. Jordan, O.P. Dewhirst, J.W. McNutt, A.M. Wilson. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs. Nature communications 7, 11033, 2016.

O.P. Dewhirst, H.K. Evans, K. Roskilly, R.J. Harvey, T.Y. Hubel, A.M. Wilson. Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift‐corrected dead reckoning. Ecology and evolution 6 (17), 6210-6222, 2016.

O.P. Dewhirst, K. Roskilly, T.Y. Hubel, N.R. Jordan, K.A. Golabek, J.W. McNutt, et al. An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free ranging wild animals. Journal of Experimental Biology, jeb. 146035, 2016.

O.P. Dewhirst, N. Angarita-James, D.M. Simpson, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. A system identification analysis of neural adaptation dynamics and nonlinear responses in the local reflex control of locust hind limbs. Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 34(1): 39-58, 2013.

N. Angarita-Jaimes, O.P. Dewhirst, D.M. Simpson, Y. Kondoh, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. The dynamics of analogue signalling in local networks controlling limb movement. European Journal of Neuroscience, 36(9):3269-82, 2012.

O.P. Dewhirst, N. Angarita-James, D.M. Simpson, R. Allen, C.D. Maciel and P.L. Newland. Neural adaptation in local reflex control of limb movements. In Proceedings of Biosignals 2012 International Joint Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, pages 398-401, 2012.

O.P. Dewhirst, N. Angarita-James, D.M. Simpson, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. The dynamics of locust non-spiking local interneurons - responses to imposed-limb movements. In Proceedings of Biosignals 2011 International Joint Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, Rome, Italy, pages 270-275, 2011.

A.G. Vidal-Gadea, X. Jing, D. Simpson, O.P. Dewhirst, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. Coding characteristics of spiking local interneurons during imposed limb movements in the locust. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103: 603-615, 2010.

O.P. Dewhirst, D.M. Simpson, N. Angarita, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. Wiener-Hammerstein parameter estimation using differential evolution - application to limb reflex dynamics. In Proceedings of Biosignals 2010 International Joint Conference on Bio-inspired Systems and Signal Processing, Valencia, Spain, pages 271-276, 2010.

O.P. Dewhirst, D.M. Simpson, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. Neuromuscular reflex control of limb movement - validating models of the locust's hind leg control system using physiological input signals. In Proceedings of IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, Antalya, Turkey, pages 689-692, 2009.

O.P. Dewhirst, D.M. Simpson, R. Allen and P.L. Newland. Validating system identification models of the locusts hind leg reflex control loop using walking and sinusoidal Inputs. Abstracts of Eighth Gottingen Meeting of the German Neuro-science Society, Gottingen, Germany, 2009.

Dr Ehud Eliashar

Ehud golfing


Ehud graduated from the Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University, Israel in 1996. During his first year he worked in the Equine Hospital as an Intern in Large Animal Medicine and Surgery, and in 1998 came to the RVC for a three-year training programme in Equine Surgery. In 2000, he was appointed as a lecturer, and in 2001 passed the board exam of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons (ECVS) to become a Diplomat, the first Israeli born specialist in Equine Surgery.

During his residency Ehud became interested in lameness and corrective farriery, and a few joined projects with the Structure & Motion Lab yielded good and important clinical data. 

His interests include all aspects of lameness, corrective farriery and limb biomechanics with emphasis on clinical applications.

E-mail: eeliashar at

Papers in peer-reviewed journals

  1. Eliashar E., S.J. Dyson, R.M. Archer, E.R. Singer and R.K.W. Smith. Desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 23 horses. Equine Vet. J. (submitted for publication).
  2. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: Relationship of foot conformation and force applied to the navicular bone of sound horses at the trot. Equine Vet. J. (2004) 36, 431-435.
  3. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P., Rogers K.A. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of three horseshoing styles on the kinetics of breakover in sound horses. Equine Vet. J. (2002) 34,184-190.
  4. Eliashar E., Schramme M.C., Schumacher J., Ikada Y., and Smith R.K.W.: Use of a bioabsorbable implant for the repair of severed digital flexor tendons in four horses. Vet. Rec. (2001) 148, 506-509.
  5. Eliashar E., Smith R.K.W., Schramme M.C. and Pead M.J. Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. Equine Vet. J. (2000) 32, 447-448.

Peer-reviewed abstracts

  1. E. Eliashar, S.J. Dyson, E.R. Singer and R.K.W. Smith: Desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon in the hindlimb of 21 horses. In: Proceedings ECVS 13th annual scientific meeting, pp266-269, 2004.
  2. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: The effect of heel collapse and the angle of the distal phalanx on the forces applied to the foot. In: Proceedings BEVA annual meeting, pp 304, 2003.
  3. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of the forces applied to the front and hind feet in trotting horses. In: Proceedings BEVA annual meeting, pp 305, 2003.
  4. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P. and Wilson A.M.: The effect of heel collapse and the angle of the distal phalanx on the forces applied to the foot. In: Proceedings ECVS 12th annual scientific meeting, pp200-202, 2003.
  5. Eliashar E., McGuigan M.P., Rogers K.A. and Wilson A.M.: A comparison of three horseshoing styles on the kinetics of breakover in sound horses. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp202, 2001.
  6. Crowe O.C., Freeman S.L., Eliashar E., Schramme M.C., and Smith R.K.W: Extracorporal shock wave therapy for the treatment of hindlimb proximal suspensory desmitis. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp197, 2001.
  7. Eliashar E., Smith R.K.W., Schramme M.C. and Pead M.J.: Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. In: Proceedings ECVS 9th annual scientific meeting, pp79-81, 2000.
  8. Eliashar E., Smith R. K. W., Schramme M. C. and Pead M. J.: Pre-operative bending and twisting of a dynamic compression plate for the repair of tibial tuberosity fracture in the horse. In: Proceedings BEVA Congress, pp209, 2000.
  9. Eliashar E., Schramme M. C., Schumacher J., Ikada Y., and Smith R. K.: Preliminary results with a bio-absorbable implant for flexor tendon lacerations in horses. In: Proceedings ECVS 8th annual scientific meeting, pp67-69, 1999.

Dr Borja Esteve-Altava

Borja has been awarded a La Caixa Junior Leader Fellowship at Pompeu Fabra University in Spain to work at the Department of Experimental and Health Sciences to carry  out a research project on the evolution of craniosynostosis, a pathological condition in newborns with intriguing links with the macroevolution of the vertebrate head. 


Borja is an evolutionary biologist with a track record in morphology and mathematical biology. His research focuses on developing analytical tools to model animal anatomy, characterizing evolutionary patterns, and studying the relationship between evolution and craniofacial anomalies with implications for human health.  

2015 – Marie Skłodowska-Curie Fellowship. Royal Veterinary College, UK.

2013 – PhD in Biodiversity. University of Valencia, Spain.

2012 – Writing-up Fellowship. Konrad Lorenz Institute, Austria.

2008 – Master in Biodiversity and Evolution. University of Valencia, Spain.

2007 – Bachelor in Biology. University of Valencia, Spain.  


Borja worked with Prof. John Hutchinson on the evolution of the anatomical structure of pectoral and pelvic appendages during the transition from fins to limbs. They used anatomical network models to quantify anatomical structures and compare them in a phylogenetic context to understand better this key event in vertebrate evolution.  

Selected Publications

Esteve-Altava B, Molnar JL, Johnston P, Hutchinson JR, Diogo R. 2018. Anatomical network analysis of the musculoskeletal system reveals integration loss and parcellation boost during the fins-to-limbs transition. Evolution 72(3): 601-618. DOI 10.1111/evo.13430.

Esteve-Altava B. 2017. In search of morphological modules: a systematic review. Biological Reviews 92 (3): 1332–1347. DOI: 10.1111/brv.12284

Diogo R, Johnston P, Molnar JL, Esteve-Altava B. 2016. Characteristic tetrapod musculoskeletal limb phenotype emerged more than 400 MYA in basal lobe-finned fishes. Scientific Reports 6: 37592. DOI: 10.1038/srep3759  


Hannah Evans

Following her position with the RVC Hannah has returned to clinical practice. 


Hannah graduated with Honours from the University of Nottingham in 2012 as a Veterinary Surgeon. Having gone straight into clinical practice, she spent over a year at a hospital practice in South Wales and then moved back to the Midlands to locum at several small animal practices for the six months preceding the start of her position at the RVC. 


The remit of Hannah's work has been to understand the anatomical and muscle physiology specialisations for economical locomotion and migration of large African herbivores. She has analysed data collected using innovative GPS tracking collars, aerial filming systems and muscle biopsies, studying parameters such as preferred gait, speed and muscle performance at individual fibre level.

Her fieldwork was conducted on the savannahs of Eastern and Southern Africa: the Serengeti, Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa, studying zebra, wildebeest, impala and other large herbivores. This built on pilot studies in the UK, using predominantly domestic dogs and horses to test the tracking and filming equipment to ensure all the kit was working as expected before flying out to field locations. 

Although the focus of the project has been on locomotion and physiology, the results will also be of relevance to behavioural ecology, wildlife conservation and habitat management. 


LOCATE: Locomotion, hunting and habitat utilisation among large African carnivores and their prey.

People: Alan Wilson, Oliver Dewhirst, Hannah Evans, Richard Harvey

Professor Alan Wilson leads a team of researchers in the southern African savannah to identify how speed, manoeuvering and habitat impact the hunting and evasion practices of carnivores and their prey. 

Dr Peter Falkingham

Peter is currently working as a Senior Lecturer in the School of Natural Sciences and Psychology at Liverpool John Moores University. 


Dr Falkingham holds a BSc (hons) in Biology and Geology (2003) and a MSc in Computer Science (2004), both from the University of Bristol.

His PhD was carried out at the University of Manchester on Computer Simulation of Dinosaur Tracks, aiding in development of the finite element analysis software ParaFEM to simulate the indentation of dinosaur feet into cohesive substrates.

In 2012 Dr Falkingham was awarded a Marie Curie International Outgoing Research Fellowship, in order to study theropod locomotor evolution, as expressed in fossil tracks. This three year fellowship involved two years at Brown University, USA, before returning to RVC in 2014.

Peter subsequently took up his current post as a Senior Lecturer at Liverpool John Moores University in the School of Natural Sciences and Psychology.  


Peter's primary research focus is on dinosaur tracks, specifically how the foot and sediment interact, and how we can subsequently reverse-engineer their formation in order to constrain and understand the limb motion of these extinct animals.

While a skeleton is a record of an animal's anatomy, a track is formed in vivo, recording the animal during life. As such, fossil tracks and trackways provide additional, complimentary data to the body fossil record. By understanding the motion of substrate around a dynamically moving foot, it is possible to use tracks to constrain possible motions of the distal (and therefore proximal) limb. Peter's work incorporates digitisation of fossil tracks and computer simulation. In addition, his work incorporates data from extant taxa using XROMM techniques to study the motion of the foot during locomotion over deep, soft substrates.

In additional to his work on footprints, Peter is also involved in other research areas including dinosaur biomechanics and taxonomy, development of digitsation techniques and applications, cambrian echinoderm hydrodynamics, and materials science, collaborating with scientists from the UK, USA, across Europe, Australia, and South America.

Selected Publications

Dr Falkingham's 10 most recent peer reviewed academic publications are listed below. For a complete list, including PDFs and conference proceedings, see either his or Mendeley pages.

  • Falkingham PL (2014) Interpreting ecology and behaviour from the vertebrate fossil track record. Journal of Zoology: 222-228.
  • Falkingham PL, Bates KT, Farlow JO (2014) Historical Photogrammetry: Bird's Paluxy River Dinosaur Chase Sequence Digitally Reconstructed as It Was prior to Excavation 70 Years Ago. PLoS ONE 9: e93247.
  • Razzolini NL, Vila B, Castanera D, Falkingham PL, Barco JL, et al. (2014) Intra-Trackway Morphological Variations Due to Substrate Consistency: The El Frontal Dinosaur Tracksite (Lower Cretaceous, Spain). PLoS ONE 9: e93708.
  • Bennett MR, Morse SA, Falkingham PL (2014) Tracks made by swimming Hippopotami: An example from Koobi Fora (Turkana Basin, Kenya). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 409: 9-23.
  • White MA, Falkingham PL, Cook AG, Hocknull SA, Elliott DA (2013) Morphological comparisons of metacarpal I forAustralovenator wintonensisandRapator ornitholestoides: implications for their taxonomic relationships. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology: 1-7.
  • Maidment SCR, Bates KT, Falkingham PL, VanBuren C, Arbour V, et al. (2013) Locomotion in ornithischian dinosaurs: an assessment using three-dimensional computational modelling. Biological Reviews: n/a-n/a.
  • Falkingham PL (2013) Low cost 3D scanning using off-the-shelf video gaming peripherals. Journal of Paleontological Techniques 11: 1-9.
  • Castanera D, Vila B, Razzolini NL, Falkingham PL, Canudo JI, et al. (2013) Manus Track Preservation Bias as a Key Factor for Assessing Trackmaker Identity and Quadrupedalism in Basal Ornithopods. PLoS ONE 8: e54177.
  • Bennett MR, Falkingham PL, Morse SA, Bates K, Crompton RH (2013) Preserving the Impossible: Conservation of Soft-Sediment Hominin Footprint Sites and Strategies for Three-Dimensional Digital Data Capture. PLoS ONE 8: e60755.
  • Bates KT, Savage R, Pataky TC, Morse SA, Webster E, et al. (2013) Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure? Journal of the Royal Society: Interface 10: 20130009.

Dr Shin-ichi Fujiwara

Shin-ichi has been working as an Assistant Professor for The Nagoya University Museum since 2012.


Shin-ichi finished his BSc (Earth Science) from the University of Tokyo supervised by Prof. Tatsuo Oji in 2003 for his research about living posture in extinct crinoid which uniquely occurs from muddy substrate.

Anna at a recent open day

He went on to the Department of Earth and Planetary Science, the University of Tokyo, for his MSc and PhD, supervised by Prof. Tatsuo Oji and Dr. Makoto Manabe (National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan). He began to focus on reconstruction of forelimb postures in extinct tetrapods for his graduate research, and finished his MSc thesis on a new reconstruction of manus structure in ceratopsid dinosaurs. Inspired by fuctional morphology, biomechanics, and comparative anatomy, he was devoted to study relationships between skeletal morphologies and the limb postures for his PhD.

After he finished his PhD in 2008, he moved to Dr. Takenori Sasaki's lab, the University Museum, the University of Tokyo (UMUT), as a research cooperator, and kept on studying reconstructions of limb postures in extinct animals. In 2009, Shin-ichi moved to Prof. Hideki Endo's lab (UMUT) as a postdoc research fellow, and started studying the limb postures in inverted and sprawling quadrupeds He also visited Dr. John R. Hutchinson (RVC) for three months funded by Anne Sleep Award, the Linnean Society. In 2010, he was funded by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science at Prof. Hideki Endo. Shin-ichi joined RVC as an academic visitor in May 2010 for the research of sprawling limb posture and related topics with Dr. John R. Hutchinson.

Shin-ichi returned to UMUT ( in May 2011 as a postdoc research fellow.



Shin-ichi's research focuses on relationship between skeletal morphologies and the actual limb postures of the animals based on functional morphology and comparative anatomy. His research aims to reconstruct reliable limb postures in extinct tetrapods (e.g., ceratopsian dinosaurs and desmostylian mammals). He also aims to reveal how the limb posture diversified among the lineages of tetrapods. Shin-ichi's previous/ongoing topics are as follows:

  • Reconstruction of living posture on muddy substrate in a fossil crinoid.
  • Evolution of manus structure in ceratopsian dinosaurs.
  • Relationship between scapular position and strength of rib in quadrupedal tetrapods.
  • Relationship between olecranon orientation and elbow joint angle in extant quadrupedal mammals.
  • Reconstruction of elbow joint angle in desmostylian mammals and ceratopsian dinosaurs.
  • Comparison between shapes of articular surface and calcified epiphysis of limb bones in sauropsids.
  • Relationship between skeletal morphology and forelimb posture in inverted (upside down) quadrupeds.
  • Relationship between skeletal morphology and sprawling forelimb posture.

Beside his research, Shin-ichi have overseen reconstructions of the motions and postures of extinct animals in computer graphic movies exhibited in National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan, and Gunma Museum of Natural History, Tomioka, Japan. He have also overseen reconstructions of many scientific illustrations and models in ceratopsian dinosaurs.

Selected Publications

  1. Fujiwara S-I, Endo H, and Hutchinson JR. 2011. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints. Journal of Anatomy, 219:176-191.
  2. Fujiwara S-I and Takakuwa Y. 2011. A sub-adult growth stage indicated in the degree of suture co-ossification in Triceratops. Bulletin of Gunma Museum of Natural History, 15:1-7.
  3. Fujiwara S-I, Taru H, and Suzuki D. 2010. Shape of articular surface of crocodilian (Archosauria) elbow joints and its relevance to sauropsids. Journal of Morphology, 271:883-896.
  4. Fujiwara S-I. 2009b. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology, 108:1107-1121.
  5. Fujiwara S-I, Kuwazuru O, Inuzuka N, and Yoshikawa N. 2009. Relationship between scapular position and structural strength of rib cages in quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology, 108:1084-1094.
  6. Fujiwara S-I. 2009a. A reevaluation of the manus structure in Triceratops (Ceratopsia: Ceratopsidae). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29:1136-1147.
  7. Fujiwara S-I, Oji T, Tanaka Y, and Kondo Y. 2005. Relay strategy and adaptation to a muddy environment in Isselicrinus (Isselicrinidae: Crinoidea). Palaios 20:241-248.

Dr Hamed Haddadi

Description: Hamed HaddadiHamed joined the EECS department at Queen Mary, University of London in 2011 and is an Assistant Professor in digital media.

Whilst a postdoctoral researcher at the RVC and Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge,. Hamed was working on measuring cognitive, locomotor, social dynamics and behavioral functions in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington Disease.


Hamed has worked at a variety of institutions including:

From Oct 2004-2008 Hamed investigated the Topological Characteristics of IP Networks for his PhD, which he successfully defended on 31st October 2008. He carried out his thesis research jointly between the NetOS Group, Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University, and Networks and Services Research Laboratory Group,UCL (supervised by: Dr Miguel Rio, Dr Andrew Moore , Dr Richard Mortier)

Hamed was also student at London Business School, under the UCL CSEL sponsorship programme, attending MBA electives. His MPhil (transfer) Thesis investigatedNetwork Traffic Inference Using Sampled Statistics [html,pdf].

In 2004 Hamed completed an MSc in Telecommunication Engineeringwith distinction. He wassponsored by EPSRC, Project: kOS “kind of Operating System” (report). This work had contributions to technology spin-outSenceive.

Between 1999-2003 was studying for a BEng (Hons) Electronic Engineering. His2nd & final year were sponsored by Sony Europe. His projectfocussed on anRDS Encoder (report).

Read more at Hamed's website


Research blog, NetSocioNomics

Hamed's research forms a part of the work of the Structure & Motion Laboratory. This work is in collaboration with the Dept of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge and the Dept of Computer Science, UCL. He works on measuring cognitive, locomotor, social dynamics and behavioral functions in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington's Disease.

Hamed is also a visiting researcher at Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge.

As a part of his work on social networks (including online, human and animal) Hamed has been involved with:

  • Technical Program Committee: IEEE GLOBECOM (2009, 2010, 2011), SIMNA 2011, Pervasive 2011, IEEE CCNC'2011 Workshop on Social Networking (SocNets 2011), International Conference on Digital Information and Communication Technology and its Applications(DICTAP2011), IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop on Complex and Communication Networks(CCNet 2010), Eurosys Social Network Systems 2009, IEEE ICUMT'09, International Workshop on Emerging Internet Applications WEIA'09, International Congress on Modelling and Simulation ModSim'09
  • Reviewer: IEEE Network, IEEE Communications Letters,Elsevier COMNET, Guest Editor for MASAUM Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences (MJBAS), Wiley's handbook on Computer Networks, Computer Communications Journal, Springer Journal of the Network and Systems Management, ACM SIGCOMM, IEEE INFOCOMM, IEEE/ACM ToN and ACM IMC


Guest lecturer at Cambridge University Computer Laboratory on MPhil course

(Network Architecture) (Slides)

Selected Publications


  1. Meeyoung Cha, Juan Antonio Navarro Perez, Hamed Haddadi, "The Spread of Media Content Through Blogs", in Social Network Analysis and Mining, Springer 2011 (To Appear)
  2. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Liam Kilmartin, Andrew W Moore, Jerome Kunegis, Marios Iliofotou, "Network clustering via spectral projections", in Elsevier Computer Networks (COMNET), 2011, Paper
  3. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier and Steve Uhlig, "Weighted Spectral Distribution: A Metric for Structural Analysis of Networks ", in Machine Learning Approach for Network Analysis: Novel Graph Classes for Classification Techniques, Wiley, USA, 2011
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Andrew J. King, Alison P. Wills, Damien Fay, John Lowe, A. Jennifer Morton, Stephen Hailes, and Alan Wilson, "Determining association networks in social animals: choosing spatial-temporal criteria and sampling rates", in (Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology), 2011, (paper)
  5. Hannah Hobbs-Chell, Andrew J. King, Hannah Sharratt, Hamed Haddadi, Skye R. Rudiger , Stephen Hailes, A. Jennifer Morton, Alan M. Wilson, "Data-loggers carried on a harness do not adversely affect sheep locomotion", in Research in Veterinary Science, Elsevier, 2011 (Paper)
  6. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, Tristan Henderson, Ian Brown, "Targeted Advertising on the Handset: Privacy and Security Challenges", in (Pervasive Advertising), Springer Human-Computer Interaction Series, 2011 (paper)


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, Ian Brown "MobiAd: Private and Scalable Mobile Advertising", in The 5th ACM International Workshop on Mobility in the Evolving Internet Architecture (MobiArch2010), Chicago, Illinois, USA, September 2010 (paper)
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Pan Hui, "To Add or not to Add: Privacy and Social Honeypots", in IEEE First International Workshop on Social Networks, Cape Town, South Africa, May 27, 2010 (invited paper)
  3. Meeyoung Cha, Hamed Haddadi, Fabricio Benevenuto,Krishna Gummadi, "Measuring User Influence in Twitter: The Million Follower Fallacy", in ICWSM 2010, 4th Int'l AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, May 23-26, 2010, George Washington University, Washington, DC (paper) (NYTimes coverage ) (Harvard Business Review coverage ) (Media coverage)
  4. Hamed Haddadi, "Battling Online Click-Fraud Using Bluff Ads", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (CCR) , Vol. 40, No. 2,April 2010(Paper)
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Tristan Henderson, and Jon Crowcroft, "The ambient loo: caught short when nature calls?", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (CCR), Editorial Zone (Comic) , Vol. 40, No. 2,April 2010(Paper)
  6. H. Haddadi, D. Fay, S. Uhlig, A. Moore, R. Mortier, A. Jamakovic, "Mixing Biases: Structural Changes in the AS Topology Evolution", To appear in proc. of the second international workshop on Traffic and Measurements Analysis (COST-TMA 2010), Zürich, Switzerland, April 2010. (paper)
  7. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew G. Thomason, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, Steve Uhlig, Miguel Rio, "Weighted Spectral Distribution for Internet Topology Analysis: Theory and Applications", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (ToN), Volume 18, Issue 1, February 2010 [draft] (WSD Toolbox)


  1. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Steve Uhlig, Almerima Jamakovic, "A Weighted Spectrum Metric for Comparison of Internet Topologies", ACM SIGMETRICS PER Performance Evaluation Review, December 2009 (paper)
  2. Saikat Guha, Alexey Reznichenko, Hamed Haddadi, Paul Francis, "Serving Ads from localhost for Performance, Privacy, and Profit", Eighth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-VIII), October 2009, New York City, NY (paper)
  3. S. Guha, B. Cheng, A. Reznichenko, H. Haddadi, and P. Francis. Privad: " Rearchitecting Online Advertising for Privacy. Technical Report TR-2009-4, Max Planck Institute for Software Systems, Kaiserslautern-Saarbrucken, Germany, 2009.
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Steve Uhlig, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, "Analysis of the Internet’s structural evolution, "Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-756, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, September 2009 TECH_REPORT
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Saikat Guha, Paul Francis, "Not All Adware is Badware:Towards Privacy-Aware Advertising", 9th IFIP Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society (I3E 2009), September 2009, Nancy, France [Paper]
  6. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Almerima Jamakovic, Olaf Maennel, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Steve Uhlig, "On the Importance of Local Connectivity for Internet Topology Models", 21st International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 21), September 2009, Paris, France (Paper)
  7. Meeyoung Cha, Juan Antonio Navarro Perez, and Hamed Haddadi, "Flash Floods and Ripples: The Spread of Media Content through the Blogosphere", 3rd Int'l AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM) Data Challenge Workshop, May 17 - 20, 2009, San Jose, California [BEST PAPER AWARD]
  8. Richard G. Clegg, Raul Landa, Hamed Haddadi, Miguel Rio, "Measuring the likelihood of models for network evolution", IEEE Infocom NetSciCom Workshop, April 24, 2009 - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Preprint]
  9. R. G. Clegg, M. S. Withall, A. W. Moore, I. W. Phillips, D. J. Parish, M. Rio, R. Landa, H. Haddadi, K. Kyriakopoulos, J. Auge, R. Clayton and D. Salmon, "Challenges in the capture and dissemination of measurements from high-speed networks", IET Communications, Special Issue on Simulation, Analysis and Measurement of Broadband Network Traffic, volume 3, Issue 6 2009 pp 957-966


  1. Damien Fay, Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, "Weighted spectral distribution", Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-729, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, September 2008 (tech-report)
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Almerima Jamakovic, Olaf Maennel, Andrew W. Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, Steve Uhlig, "Beyond Node Degree: Evaluating AS Topology Models", Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-725, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory, July 2008 (tech-report)
  3. Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Andrew Moore, Saleem Bhatti, Miguel Rio, Xianhui Che, “Revisiting the Issues On Netflow Sample and Export Performance”, CHINACOM 2008, Third International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, August 25-27, 2008, Hangzhou, China [paper]
  4. Hamed Haddadi, Gianluca Iannaccone, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, "Network Topologies: Inference, Modelling and Generation", IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Volume 10, Number 2, 2008, paper
  5. Hamed Haddadi, Damien Fay, Steve Uhlig, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Almerima Jamakovic, Miguel Rio, "Tuning Topology Generators Using Spectral Distributions", SPEC International Performance Evaluation Workshop 2008, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 5119, June 2008, Darmstadt, Germany, Book Chapter (paper)
  6. Richard G. Clegg, Raul Landa, Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Miguel Rio, "Techniques for flow inversion on sampled data", 11th IEEE INFOCOM Global Internet Symposium, April 2008, Phoenix AZ, USA (paper)
  7. Hamed Haddadi, Steve Uhlig, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, and Miguel Rio. Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 38(2), April 2008. (paper)


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Andrew Moore, Richard Mortier, Miguel Rio, Gianluca Iannaccone, "End-to-End Network Topology Generation", Extended abstract, ACM SIGCOMM, August 2007, Kyoto, Japan [abstract]
  2. Richard G. Clegg, Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Miguel Rio, “Towards Informative Statistical Flow Inversion” May 2007 [paper]


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Raul Landa, Miguel Rio, Saleem Bhatti, “Revisiting the Issues On Netflow Sample and Export Performance” December 2006, [paper]
  2. Hamed Haddadi and Lionel Sacks, “Networks Modelling Using Sampled Statistics”, Proceedings of LCS2006, London Communications Symposium: The Annual London Conference on Communication, University College London , 14th-15th September 2006 [paper]


  1. Hamed Haddadi, Lionel Sacks, “Passive Monitoring Challenges on High-Speed Switched Networks”, Proceedings of LCS2005, London Communications Symposium: The Annual London Conference on Communication, University College London , 8th-9th September 2005 [paper]
  2. Hamed Haddadi, Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Lionel E Sacks, “Development of a Monitoring and Measurement Platform for UKLight High-Capacity Network”, Proceedings of PREP2005 : Postgraduate Research Conference in Electronics, Photonics, Communications and Networks, and Computing Science, University of Lancaster, UK, 30th March to 1st April 2005 [paper]
  3. Hamed Haddadi, Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues, Lionel E Sacks, “Applications of GridProbe Technology for Traffic Monitoring on High-Capacity Backbone Networks, Data-Link Layer Simulation Approach”, Extended abstract, Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2005: The Conference on Computer Communications, Miami, Florida, USA, March 13th -17th 2005 [abstract]
  4. Matt Britton, Venus Shum, Lionel Sacks and Hamed Haddadi, “A Biologically-Inspired Approach to Designing Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of EWSN 2005: 2nd European Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks, Istanbul, Turkey, January 31st – February 2nd 2005 [paper via IEEE Xplore]


PRIVATE, ACCOUNTABLE, AND PERSONALIZED INFORMATION DELIVERY IN A NETWORKED SYSTEM , United States Patent application, Max Planck Institute for Software Systems (MPI-SWS), with Paul Francis and Saikat Guha

Dr Ashley Heers

Dr Ashley Heers is a Postdoctural Research Fellow, now working for the American Museum of Natural History.


Ashley is originally from California, where she earned bachelors degrees in Biology and Geology at the University of California, Davis. She then went on to complete a Ph.D. at the University of Montana. Subsequently, Ashley began her work at the RVC's Structure and Motion Lab as a Research Fellow, looking at the relationship between anatomy and locomotor performance in developing birds. 


Ashley is interested in functional morphology, and the development and evolution of locomotor capacity and performance. Her work currently focuses on wing- and leg-based locomotion in birds and their theropod ancestors.

Dr Behzad Momahed Heravi

Following his Postdoctoral Research post with the Structure and Motion Lab Dr Behzad Momahed Heravi has taken up another research position with the University College London within the Faculty of Engineering Science. 


Behzad received his BSc in Mechanical engineering in 2003 and MSc in Aerospace engineering (flight dynamics and control) from Sharif University of Technology in 2005. He undertook a PhD (ORSAS scholarship) at the School of Computing and Communications in Lancaster University, supervised by Bahram Honary, where he studied low-complexity capacity approaching codes.

Behzad worked as a Research Associate at Lancaster University where he led (EPSRC) research projects in advanced coding and modulation for future HF-IP systems. Subsequently, he worked in telecoms industry (HW Communications) as senior R&D engineer where he undertook industrial projects on probabilistic location determination based on GSM and WiFi networks.

Behzad moved to the University of London, Royal Veterinary College in 2013, taking up the position of postdoctoral researcher in the EPSRC CARDyAL project, working with Alan Wilson and Stephen Hailes on localisation in wireless sensor networks.

Behzad is a member of IEEE Communication Society, the Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) and IEEE UK&RI Information Theory Chapter. He is an active reviewer in IET Communications, IET Wireless Sensor Systems and IET Image Processing journals.


Behzad's research interests include

  • mobile wireless sensor networks
  • cooperative localisation
  • sensor fusion
  • statistical inference and estimation
  • coalition formation games

Selected Publications

  • M. Ghamri, B. M. Heravi, U. Roedig, B. Honary, C. A. Pickering, ‘Improving Transmission Reliability of Low-Power MAC Protocols Using Average Diversity Combining’, IET Wireless Sensor Systems, Vol 2, pp. 377-384, December 2012.
  • B. M. Heravi, S.R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Switchable-rate Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for IP over HF Systems’, IET Communications, Vol. 5 , No. 4, pp. 505 – 511, March 2011.
  • B. M. Heravi , S. Kariyawasam , N. Pandya , B. Honary, ‘Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Code Design for Practical Applications’, The Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and Communications, Vol. 6, No. 3 2010, pp. 86-92.
  • S. Ayub, B. M. Heravi, A. Bahraminasab, B. Honary, ‘Pedestrian Direction of Movement Determination using Smartphone’, Next generation Mobile Applications, Services and Technologies, 2012 Sixth Intl. Conf. on, Paris France on 12-14 September 2012, pp 64-69.
  • B. M. Heravi, S.R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary and L. Barclay, ‘Performance Analysis of Next-Generation HF-IP Systems using Capacity Approaching Codes’, 13th International Ionospheric Effects Symposium (IES 2011), May 17-19, Washington DC, United States.
  • B. M. Heravi, S. R. Kariyawasam, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Construction of Switchable-rate QC-LDPC Codes for HF-IP Systems’, 10th Int. Symp. Comms. Theory and Applications, Ambleside, UK, 13-17 July, 2009, pp 232-235
  • S. R. Kariyawasam, B. M. Heravi, B. Honary, G. Vongas, ‘Switchable-Rate Error Control Coding for HF-IP Systems”, The IET Ionospheric Radio Systems and Techniques (IRST 2009), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh,UK. 28-30th April 2009, pp 132-136.
  • S. R. Kariyawasam, B. M. Heravi, B. Honary, G. Vongas, and L. Barclay, ‘HF-IP: Propagation Analysis’, The IET Ionospheric Radio Systems and Techniques (IRST 2009), Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh,UK. 28-30th April 2009, pp 127-131.

Dr Tatjana Hubel


Tatjana graduated in 2000 with a Diplom (MA) in Biology from the Saarland University in Germany. She completed her PhD in the aerodynamics of flapping flight at the Darmstadt University in 2006. Tatjana then became a postdoctoral associate at Brown University investigating the kinematics and aerodynamics of bat flight before joining the RVC as a Research Fellow.


Tatjana was employed as a Research Fellow in the Structure and Motion Laboratory. Tatjana's research interest covers the mechanics and energetics of terrestrial locomotion as well as the mechanics and aerodynamics of animal flight. She most recently worked on LOCATE, an ERC-funded project looking at hunting performance in African predators and predator prey interaction, after working on CARDyALDynamics and Energetics of Hunting in the Cheetah, and Dynamics and Energetics of Hunting in the African Wild Dog.

See her website for details on her research.

Selected Publications

Wilson, A.M., Hubel, T.Y., Wilshin, S.D., Lowe, J.C., Lorenc, M., Dewhirst, O.P., et al. (2018). Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala. Nature; 554 (7691):183. (doi:10.1038/nature25479)

Hubel, T.Y., Shotton, J., Wilshin, S.D., Horgan, J., Klein, R., McKenna, R., Wilson, A.M. (2016). Cheetah Reunion–The Challenge of Finding Your Friends Again. PloS one 11(12) (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166864).

Hubel, T. Y., Hristov, N. I., Swartz, S. M. and Breuer, K. S. (2016). Wake structure and kinematics in two insectivorous bats. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371 (doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0385).

Hubel, T.Y., Myatt, J.P., Jordan, N.R., Dewhirst, O.P., McNutt, J.W. & Wilson, A.M. (2016). Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs. Nature Communications 7 (doi:10.1038/ncomms11033).

Hubel, T.Y., Myatt, J.P., Jordan, N.R., Dewhirst, O.P., McNutt, J.W. & Wilson, A.M. (2016). Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs. Nature Communications 7 (doi:10.1038/ncomms11034).

Dewhirst, O. P., Roskilly, K., Hubel, T. Y., Jordan, N. R., Golabek, K. A., McNutt, J. W. and Wilson, A. M. (2016). An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free ranging wild animals. Journal of Experimental Biology (doi: 10.1242/jeb.146035).

Van der Weyde, L. K., Hubel, T. Y., Horgan, J., Shotton, J., McKenna, R., Wilson, A.M. (2016). Movement patterns of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in farmlands in Botswana. Biology Open (doi: 10.1242/bio.021055).

Dewhirst, O. P., Evans, H. K., Roskilly, K., Harvey, R. J., Hubel, T. Y. and Wilson, A. M. (2016). Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift‐corrected dead reckoning. Ecology and Evolution (doi:10.1002/ece3.2359).

Harvey, R. J., Roskilly, K., Buse, C., Evans, H. K., Hubel, T. Y. and Wilson, A. M. (2016). Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system. Journal of Experimental Biology 219, 2687-2692 (doi:10.1242/jeb.139022).

Hubel, T. Y., & Usherwood, J. R. (2015). Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218 (18), 2830-2839 ().

Portugal, S. J., Hubel, T. Y., Fritz, J., Heese, S., Trobe, D., Voelkl, B., … & Usherwood, J. R. (2014). Upwash exploitation and downwash avoidance by flap phasing in ibis formation flight. Nature, 505 (7483), 399-402 (doi:10.1038/nature12939).

Hubel, T. Y. and Usherwood, J. R. (2013). Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk-run transition speed with incline. Biology Letters 9 ().

Usherwood, J. R., Channon, A. J., Myatt, J. P., Rankin, J. W. and Hubel, T. Y. (2012). The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force? J.R.Soc. Interface 9, 2396-2402 ().

Taylor, G. K., Carruthers, A. C., Hubel, T. Y. and Walker, S. M. (2012). Wing morphing in insects, birds and bats: mechanism and function. Morphing Aerospace vehicles and structures, 11-40.

Usherwood, J. R. and Hubel, T. Y. (2012). Energetically optimal running requires torques about the centre of mass. J.R.Soc. Interface 9, 2011-2015 ().

Hubel, T. Y., Hristov, N., Swartz, S. and Breuer, K. (2012). Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat. J.R.Soc. Interface ().

Hubel, T. Y., Riskin, D., Swartz, S. and Breuer, K. (2010). Wake structure and Kinematics – the flight of the Lesser dog-faced fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis. JEB 213, 3427-3440 (). * Featured in Inside JEB, Journal of Experimental Biology 213.

Hubel, T. Y., Tropea, C. (2010). The importance of leading edge vortices under simplified flapping flight conditions at the size scale of birds. JEB 213, 1930-1939 ().

Hubel, T. Y., Hristov, N., Swartz, S. and Breuer, K. (2009). Time-resolved wake structure and kinematics of bat flight. Experiments in Fluids 46, 933-943 (doi:10.1007/s00348-009-0624-7).

Hubel, T. Y., Tropea, C. (2009). Experimental investigation of a flapping wing model. Experiments in Fluids 46, 945-961 (doi:10.1007/s00348-008-0599-9).

Riskin, D. K., Bahlman, J. W., Hubel, T. Y., Ratcliffe, J. M., Kunz, T. H. and Swartz, S. M. (2009). Bats go head-under-heels: the biomechanics of landing on a ceiling. JEB 212, 945-953 ().

Hubel, T. Y., (2006). Investigation of unsteady aerodynamics on a flapping wing model (Untersuchungen zur instationären Aerodynamik an einem vogelähnlichen Flügelschlagmodell). PhD. Dissertation, Faculty of Biology, Darmstadt University.

Hubel T. Y., Tropea C., 2004. Aerodynamics and wake structure of flapping wings, Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 15, Nr. 249, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf.

Hubel T. Y., Tropea C., 2004. Wirbelbildung hinter schlagenden Tragflächen. In: Rossmann T & Tropea C, Bionik – neue Forschungsergebnisse aus Natur-, Ingenieur- und Geisteswissenschaft. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin.

Hubel T. Y., Tropea C., 2002. Untersuchungen zur instationären Aerodynamik an einem flügelschlagenden Modell, In: Wisser, A., Nachtigall, W. (Eds.): BIONAreport 16, Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz, GTTB, Saarbrücken, pp. 184-188.

Eder S., Hubel T. Y., Tropea C., 2002. Lernen von der Natur- der Vogel- und Insektenflug. Thema Forschung, TU-Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.

Hubel T. Y., Kesel A. B., Nachtigall W. 2000. Einfluß der Hinterkantengeometrie auf die aerodynamische Performance biologischer Tragflächen. In: Wisser, A., Nachtigall, W. (Eds.): BIONAreport 14, Akad. Wiss. Lit. Mainz, GTTB, Saarbrücken, pp. 174-176.

Hubel, T. Y., 2000. Einfluss verschiedener libellentypischer Hinterkantengeometrien auf die aerodynamische Charakteristik von Profilmodellen (Aerodynamic performance of dragonfly wings with different trailing edges). Diplom thesis, Saarland University.

Hubel, T. Y., 1998. Studien zum strömungsmechanischen Einfluß gefiederter Stufen – Kräftemessung an Tragflügelmodellen mit naturnaher Profilierung. Student research thesis, Saarland University.

Emily Keeble

Emily Keeble

Emily worked as a research technician on the ERC-funded DAWNDINOS with Prof. John Hutchinson. Her work involved segmenting CT scan data in order to create 3D models that can then be used to test questions of locomotory performance in fossil archosaurs.


Emily has always been interested in Mesozoic archosaurs and in particular is interested in their evolution throughout the Triassic. She completed her MSci in palaeontology and evolution at the University of Bristol in 2017 where she spent her final year studying late Triassic microvertebrates from fissure fill deposits in Wales. Since graduating, she has interned at the Great Plains Dinosaur Museum in Montana where she acted as a fossil preparator and volunteered at the London Natural History Museum in both the Imaging and Analysis Center and the Conservation Lab.

Selected Publications

Keeble, E. & Benton, M.J. 2020. Three-dimensional tomographic study of dermal armour from the tail of the Triassic aetosaur Stagonolepis robertsoni, Scottish Journal of Geology

Keeble, E. Benton, M.J. & Whiteside, D.I. 2018. The terrestrial fauna of the Late Triassic Pant-y-ffynnon Quarry fissures, South Wales, UK and a new species of Clevosaurus (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia), Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 129(2): 99-119


Emily has taken part in scientific outreach activities regularly since she was an undergraduate. Working with the Bristol Dinosaur Project, she has visited many schools and after-school clubs in the Bristol area to give talks and lead workshops on dinosaurs, evolution and geology. Independently, she has also run workshops with the Scouts.

Outreach events Emily has been a part of include the Bristol Rocks event at the Bristol Museum and Gallery (also in conjunction with the Bristol Dinosaur Project), the Festival of Nature (with the University of Bristol) and the Wine and Dino evening at the Great Plains Dinosaur Museum and Field Station in Montana, where she led members of the public around the museum's prep lab.

In 2017, Emily worked at the Bristol Zoo Gardens as a "dino ranger" sharing her passion for palaeontology as part of the DinoMania exhibit.

She has served as the palaeontological consultant on a number of projects with DK Publishing including an app in 2016, a non-fiction book "Does a Dinosaur Roar" and a fiction book where the protagonists are sent back to the Jurassic. As a writer, Emily has written pages on extinct life in a book on life cycles.

Online, Emily runs a scientific communication Instagram account focusing on her palaeontological work and adventures.

Dr Andrew King

Andrew left the RVC to join Swansea University’s College of Science in a permanent academic position in September 2012 and is now a Senior Lecturer in Biosciences.


Andrew King

A NERC Research Fellow, Andrew’s work uses a question-oriented approach to address a range of issues in behavioural and evolutionary ecology, especially concerning group-living animals. For more information see Andrew's personal research pages.

Andrew has a PhD in Behavioural Ecology. He is an Honorary Research Fellow at the Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge (Evolutionary Ecology Group), and is a member of the Tsaobis Baboon Project (Zoological Society of London) and the Baboon Research Unit (University of Cape Town). He is also serves as an Editor for Animal Behaviour,and is a Member of The NERC Peer Review College.


At the RVC Andrew was based in the Structure and Motion Laboratory, a Centre of Excellence at the forefront of developing technologies to study animal movement, where he uses a question-oriented approach to examine how costs and benefits shape individual behaviour, so that he can understand how these behaviours relate to the structure and functioning of groups and populations. He uses a variety of group-living fish, bird, and mammal systems to answer these important research questions.

Andrew's research is team-oriented, and he collaborates with a variety of individuals and institutions to find innovative ways to tackle his research questions, blending theoretical modelling and field observations and experiments. He has spent nearly three years in Southern Africa, studying the behaviour and ecology of baboons in the Namib Desert, and meerkat sociality in the Kalahari Desert. He still gets into the field to study wild populations, but is enjoying answering his questions in his new fish laboratory at the RVC.


Andrew lectures on the 'Animal Behaviour and Welfare' and 'Comparitive Animal Locomotion' modules as part of the BSc Bioveterinary Science degree. Andrew guest lectures for Imperial College, London. Andrew supervises two PhD students, Leah Williams (personality and leadership in a social bird) and Diamanto Mamuneas(collective performance in animal groups).

Selected Publications

For a full list of publications and download links, click here.

King, A. J., Wilson, A. M., Wilshin, S. D., Lowe, J., Haddadi, H., Hailes, S., Morton, A. J. (2012). Selfish-herd behaviour of sheep under threat.Current Biology. In Press.

King, A. J., Cheng, L., Starke, S. D., Myatt, J. P. (2012) Is the true “wisdom of the crowd” to copy successful individuals?Biology LettersOnline early.

King, A. J.& Sumpter, D. J. T. (2012) Murmurations.Current Biology22: R112-R114.

King, A. J., Sueur, C., Huchard, E., Cowlishaw. G. (2011) A rule-of-thumb based on social affiliation explains collective movements in desert baboons.Animal Behaviour82: 1337-1345.

King, A. J.,Narraway, C., Hodgson, L., Weatherill, A., Sommer, V. & Sumner, S. (2011) Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision-making.Biology Letters7: 237-240.

King, A. J.& Sueur, C. (2011). Where next? Group coordination and collective decision-making by primates.International Journal of Primatology.32: 1245-1267.

King, A. J., Clark, F. E. & Cowlishaw, G. (2011) The dining etiquette of desert baboons: the roles of social bonds, kinship, and dominance in co-feeding networks.American Journal of Primatology73: 768-774.

King, A. J.(2010) Follow me! I'm a leader if you do; I'm a failed initiator if you don't?Behavioural Processes. 84: 671-674

King, A. J.,Johnson, D. D. P. & Van Vugt, M. (2009) The origins and evolution of leadership.Current Biology19: R911-R916.

King, A. J., Isaac, N. J. B. & Cowlishaw, G. (2009) Ecological, social, and reproductive factors shape producer-scrounger dynamics in baboons.Behavioral Ecology20: 1039-1049.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009c) All together now: behavioural synchrony in baboons.Animal Behaviour78: 1381-1387.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009b) Leaders, followers and group decision-making.Communicative & Integrative Biology2: 147-150.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2009a) Foraging opportunities drive interspecific associations between rock kestrels and desert baboons.Journal of Zoology277: 111-118.

King, A. J., Douglas, C. M. S., Isaac, N. J. B., Huchard, E.& Cowlishaw, G. (2008) Dominance and affiliation mediate despotism in a social primate.Current Biology18: 1833-1838.

King, A. J.& Cowlishaw, G. (2007) When to use social information: the advantage of large group size in individual decision-making.Biology Letters3: 137–13.

Outreach Activities

Andrew is enthusiastic about engaging others in science and hasorganised numerous public scientific meetings and international symposia.His work has also featured in The Economist, New Scientist, BBC Wildlife, and Discover Magazine, and he is regularly interviewed about his workby the media. You can learn more about these activities here.

Dr Krijn Michel

Dr Krijn Michel worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher in Biomechanics with John Hutchinson on the Dawn Dinos project.

Dr Julia Myatt

Julia Myatt

Julia is currently a lecturer at the University of Birmingham teaching various aspects of zoology at an undergraduate level. 


2010-2012: Postdoctoral researcher in the Structure and Motion Lab, RVC, University of London with prof Alan Wilson(Funded by EPSRC: Cooperative aerodynamics and radio-based dynamic localisation).

2006-2010: PhD (Funded by BBSRC: 'Applying an ecomorphological framework to the study of orangutan positional behaviour and morphological variation within the non-human apes'), supervised by Dr Susannah K S Thorpe, examined by Dr Kris D'Aout and Dr Stephen Publicover. - involved 12 month period of fieldwork on Sumatra Indonesia

2005-2006: Research Technician in the Insect Ecology Group, Lancaster University with Prof Ken Wilson (Funded by NERC: Costs of Immunity: A Nutritional Perspective).

2003-2004: Student placement at Syngenta Ltd in the Entomology Team -research project into the production of the root-knot nematode in a soil system.

2001-2005: BSc (first class honours) Applied Biology (University of Bath) - research project: Behaviour of New World vs Old World monkeys in a captive system.


Julia's research has focused on understanding the relationship between the morphology of primates and the behaviours they perform in the complex forest environment (morphlogy-behaviour-habitat interface). She has a strong interest in all aspects of animal locomotion and behaviour, from the level of the muscle fibre through to the movement patterns and social interactions of whole groups. She is particularly interested in the relationship with the natural environment and how this shapes the evolution of the systems observed.


Julia taught comparative ape locomotion and anatomy (CAL) to RVC VetSci undergraduates and primate conservation to final-year undergraduates.  She has also supervised a number of final-year students carrying out both zoo-based and field-based primate studies.

Selected Publications

Usherwood, J.R., Channon, A.J., Myatt, J.P., Rankin, J.W. and Hubel, T.Y. (2012). The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric force?.J. Roy. Soc. Interface.

van Casteren, A; Sellers, W.I., Thorpe, S.K.S., Coward, S., Crompton, R.H., Myatt, J.P. and Ennos, A.R. (2012). Nest-building orangutans demonstrate engineering know-how to produce safe, comfortable beds.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Myatt, J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Payne-Davis et al. (2012). Functional adaptation in the forelimb muscles of non-human great apes.J Anat.

King A.J., Cheng, L., Starke, S.D. and Myatt, J.P. (2011). Is the true 'wisdom of the crowd' to copy successful individuals?.Biol Lett.

Myatt J.P. and Thorpe, S.K.S. (2011). Postural strategies employed by orangutans (Pongo abelii) during feeding in the terminal branch niche.Am J Phys Anthropol. 146: 73-82

Myatt J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Thorpe, S.K.S (2011). Hindlimb muscle architecture in non-human great apes and a comparison of methods for analysing inter-species variation.J Anat. 219: 150-166

Myatt J.P., Crompton, R.H. and Thorpe, S.K.S (2011). A new method for recording complex positional behaviours and habitat interactions in primates.Folia Primatol. 83: 13-24

Myatt J.P., Schilling, N. and Thorpe, S.K.S. (2011). Distribution patterns of fibre types in the tricep surae muscle group of chimpanzees and orangutans.J Anat. 218: 402-412

Portugal, S.J., Thorpe, S.K.S., Green, J.A., Myatt, J.P. and Butler, P.J. (2009). Testing the use/disuse hypothesis: pectoral leg muscle changes in captive barnacle geese Branta leucopsis during wing moult.J Exp Biol. 212: 2401-2410.

Cotter, S.C., Myatt, J.P., Benskin, C.M.H. and Wilson, K. (2008). Selection for cuticular melanism reveals immune function and life-history trade-offs inSpodoptera littoralis.J Evol Biol. 21: 1744-1754.

Outreach Activities

- STEM ambassador for Hertfordshire (2011- 2012)

- Co-organised sessions for GCSE-level in the Structure and Motion Lab, presenting lectures and undertaking practical experiments with small groups of children (2012)

- Co-organised RVC Open Day events (2011 and 2012) investigating aspects of swarm intelligence

- Attended secondary school careers days as an advisor (Potter's Bar; 2012)

- Demonstrated at the Science Museum 'Robotville Festival' with Dr Andrew Spence (SML; 2011)

- Presented sessions and activities related to being a field biologist at a year 9 Science at Work Day (Milton Keynes; 2011)

Dr Olga Panagiotopoulou

Olga Panagiotopoulou

 Olga left the RVC in 2013 to take up a position as Lecturer in Anatomy at the School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia.


After completing a MSc degree in human osteology and palaeopathology at the University of Bradford, Olga moved to the University of York to do a PhD funded by Marie Curie-MEST-CT-2005-200601.

This PhD project was supervised by Dr. Samuel Cobb of the Functional Morphology and Evolution Research Unit of the Hull York Medical School (HYMS) and was also conducted in cooperation with the Centre of Medical Engineering and Technology (CMET) of the University of Hull. Using medical imaging techniques, 3D virtual reconstruction and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Olga tested whether symphyseal morphology reflects an adaptational balance between the spatial requirements of housing the developing anterior dentition and the biomechanical functional maintenance during ontogeny. The validity of the FE models was tested by carrying out experimental strain measurements in the laboratory using laser speckle interferometry and strain gauges analyses.

Being highly qualified in the application of FEA and experimental techniques for the comprehension of the form-function relationship of anatomical structures Olga joined the Structure & Motion Lab in RVC following her PhD to further expand her research expertise in skull/feeding biomechanics with a new repertoire in limb/locomotion biomechanics.



Olga's research is focused on assessing the links between form (morphology), function (mechanics) and development of the terrestrial vertebrate musculoskeletal system during feeding and locomotion.

Why does the vertebrate musculoskeletal system vary so widely--or in other words, what are the functional and developmental consequences of anatomical variation? Evolutionary history surely has played a huge role in shaping musculoskeletal form, but how do developmental changes in musculoskeletal mechanics and scaling factors during ontogeny constrain and/or direct the morphology and composition of musculoskeletal design?


Olga's research in feeding mechanics seeks to determine the function of the primate and mammalian chewing apparatus as it relates to dietary ecology, dental morphology and development in adulthood and during ontogeny. Using in vivo experimental techniques, computer simulations and mathematical models she studies how the modulation of muscle activity affects the motion of the jaw and how this interaction affects the morphology of the mandible and the dental tissues. She also explores the effect of developmental factors, such as the crypts of the developing dentition on mandibular form.

Her research on feeding mechanics has generated ongoing collaborations with Dr. Ross (University of Chicago, USA), Dr. Cobb (Hull York Medical School, UK), Prof. Dechow (Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, USA), Dr. Taylor (Duke University, USA), Dr. Iriarte-Diaz (University of Chicago, USA).


Olga's locomotor interests seek to study the basic principles of foot form, function and evolution and also determine how regional loads on foot structures (bones, joints, pads, ligaments and tendons) relate to the occurence of pathologies.

The most common cause of morbidity and death in animals in captivity and domesticity is foot disease (pathologies). Foot pathologies encountered clinically are similar across species, including humans, and encompass degenrative (e.g. osteoarthritis, tendonitis, laminitis), infectious (e.g. foot abscesses) and traumatic (e.g. fractures) disorders. Foot disease is often progressive, painful and treatment unrewarding in many cases leading to disabled and euthanised animals. Prevention is hence the key in ensuring the welfare of those animals, and knowledge about the main factors contributing to foot disease an essential prerequisite. The cause of these pathologies is multifactorial. The biomechanical foot-ground interaction is a critical contributor, particularly the high frequency vibrations when the foot hits the ground during locomotion, as well as large forces (hence stresses and pressures) imposed later in the step which can exacerbate pathology even if not the primary cause.

Olga's research on locomotor mechanics has been in collaboration with Prof. Hutchinson (The Royal Veterinary College) and has generated ongoing collaborations with Dr. Pataky (Shinshu University, Japan).

Selected Publications

Peer reviewed:

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hill Z., Hutchinson J.R. (2012). Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Experimental Biology 215 1584-1593.

Panagiotopoulou O., Wilshin S.D., Rayfield E.J., Shefelbine S.J., Hutchinson J.R. (2012). What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 9 351-361.

Panagiotopoulou O. & Cobb S.N. (2011).The mechanical significance of morphological variation in the macaque mandibular symphysis during mastication. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 146 253-261.

Cobb S.N. & Panagiotopoulou O. (2011). Balancing the spatial demands of the developing dentition with the mechanical demands of the catarrhine mandibular symphysis. Journal of Anatomy 218 (1) 96-111.

Panagiotopoulou O., Kupczik K., Cobb, S.N. (2011). The mechanical function of the periodontal ligament in the macaque mandible: a validation and sensitivity study using finite element analysis. Journal of Anatomy 218 (1) 75-86.Highest published paper for 2010-2011 and Journal of Anatomy Better Paper Prize for the paper.

Panagiotopoulou O., Curtis N.,O' Higgins P., Cobb, S.N. (2010). Modelling subcortical bone in finite element analyses: a validation and sensitivity study in the macaque mandible. Journal of Biomechanics 43 (8) 1063-1611.

Panagiotopoulou O. 2009. Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Applying an engineering method to functional morphology in anthropology and in human biology. Annals of Human Biology, 36(5): 609-623.

Conference Proceedings:

Melleney A, Panagiotopoulou O., Whitlock J, Weller R. (2012). Determining the relationship between subchondral density and articular cartilage thickness in the fetlock joint of Thoroughbred racehorses. British Equine Veterinary Association.

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hutchinson J.R. (2011). Regional plantar pressure distribution during walking in hoofed mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A 8.6).

Warner S.E., Pickering P., Panagiotopoulou O.,Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R. (2011). Size-related biomechanical constraints on foot impacts in ungulate mammals. The Society of Integrated Biology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Pataky T.C., Hutchinson J.R.(2011). Regional plantar pressure distribution during walking in hoofed mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A8.6).

Warner S.E., Pickering P., Panagiotopoulou O., Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R.(in press). Frequency content of impact force signals in ungulates. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 121 (A 8.7).

Warner S.E., Panagiotopoulou O., Pickering P. Phau T., Ren L., Hutchinson J.R.(2010).Scaling of foot impact mechanics in ungulate mammals. Society of experimental biology Abstract Book 123 (A 8.66).

Panagiotopoulou O., Njuguna P., Rayfield E., Tsaopoulos D., Shefelbine S., Hutchinson J.R. (in press). Subject-specific finite element analysis of regional bone stresses in the femur of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) during locomotion. Journal of Morphology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Kupczik K., Cobb S.N. (in press). The mechanical significance of the periodontal ligament in the macaque mandible: a validation and sensitivity study using ex vivo experimental analyses and finite element modelling.Journal of Morphology.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2010.The effect of the spatial demands of the developing dentition on the mechanical performance of the mandibular symphysis in juveniles. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141 (S50).

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2009. Anterior mandibular morphology, masticatory biomechanics and dietary reconstructions of fossil hominoids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29 (3): 161A.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2009. Testing the adaptive significance of the catarrhine symphysis using Finite Element Analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 138 (S48):205 (Mildred Trotter Prize).

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Biomechanical adaptation in the mandibular symphysis of European Miocene hominoids. Workshop of European Fossil Primates, Simposio della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, Grosseto, Italy.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Modelling trabecular and cortical bone in the macaque mandible: Do internal geometry and material properties matter? UK Workshop on Modern Functional Anatomy, Natural History Museum, London.

Panagiotopoulou O., Cobb S.N. 2008. Determinants of symphyseal form of the mandible: Biomechanical and spatial models during ontogeny. Society for the Study of Human Biology, Oxford.

Book Entries:

Panagiotopoulou O., 2008. Bone: a structure - function approach. In: van Asperen, Becker, Demarchi, Groning, Panagiotopoulou (Eds) Interdisciplinary approaches to reconstructing the past, University of York, pp 93-114.

Also see my pages in and Google Scholar.

Dr Rachel Payne

Rachel in Livingo


Rachel graduated in Anatomy and Human Biology at Liverpool University. It was during this time that she developed her passion for primates and evolution. Rachel went on to study orang-utan locomotion with Robin Crompton at Liverpool University, gaining a PhD in Hominoid locomotion. Rachel’s first academic post was as a lecturer in Biomechanics at Brunel University. In 2003, she joined the Structure & Motion Lab at the RVC as a Research Fellow. In August 2005, she was employed as a full time Lecturer in Anatomy and Biomechanics.


Rachel is particularly interested in the relationships between functional anatomy, whole limb design and locomotion. She is currently investigating functional locomotor anatomy in animals designed for speed, endurance and adaptability (horse, greyhound, ostrich, hare, camel, primate, cheetah, lion, tiger, okapi). Her other work includes research into the evolution of bipedalism through the study of living primates and studies of the biomechanics and energetics of human bilateral amputee gait.

Rachel is a dedicated educator and has taught anatomy, biomechanics and evolution across many RVC undergraduate and postgraduate courses. She has also been Course Director of the Gateway Programme which provides students from low income families with the opportunity to attend vet school.

Rachel returned to the RVC for a time to work at the CETL LIVE Centre conducting research into veterinary education.


  1. Isler, K., Payne, R.C., Günther, M.M., Thorpe, S.K.S., Li, Y., Savage, R., Crompton, R.H. Inertial Properties of Hominoid Limb Segments. J Anat.
  2. Wright DA, Marks, L, Payne, RC (in press). A comparative study of physiological costs of walking in bilateral amputees. Prosthetics and Orthotics International..
  3. Smith NC, Jespers KJ, Payne RC, Wilson AM (2007). Muscle moment arms of pelvic limb muscles of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus). J. Anat.
  4. Payne RC (2007) Encouraging student diversity: a new Gateway to veterinary medicine. In Practice.29: 356-359.
  5. SB Williams, Payne RC and AM Wilson. (2007). Functional Specialisation of the Pelvic limb of the Hare (Lepus europeus). J Anat. 210: 472-490.
  6. SB Williams, AM Wilson and Payne RC (2007). Functional Specialisation of the thoracic limb of the Hare (Lepus europeus). J Anat. 210: 491-505.
  7. Payne RC, Crompton RH, Gunther MM, Isler K, Thorpe SKS, Savage R and D’Aout K (2006) Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. Part I: Comparative anatomy. J. Anat.208, 709-24.
  8. Payne RC, Crompton RH, Gunther MM, Isler K, Thorpe SKS, Savage R and D’Aout K.(2006) Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. Part II: Moment arms. J. Anat208, 725-42.
  9. Smith NC, Wilson AM, Jespers KJ, Payne RC (2006). Muscle architecture and functional anatomy of the pelvic limb of the Ostrich (Struthio camelusJ. Anat. 209 (6):765-79.
  10. Ferrari M, Weller R, Pfau T, Payne RC, Wilson AM (2006) A comparison of freehand three-dimensional ultrasound, two-dimensional ultrasound and dissections for determination of lesion volume in tendons. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biol. 32797-804
  11. Isler K, Payne RC, Günther MM, Thorpe SKS, Li Y, Savage R, Crompton RH (2006). Inertial Properties of Hominoid Limb Segments. J. Anat. 201: 209-218.
  12. Payne RC, Hutchinson JR, Robilliard JJ, Wilson AM (2005) Functional specialisation of the equine pelvic limb. J. Anat. 206, 557-574.
  13. Vereeke E, Payne RC, D’Août K, Aerts P (2005) Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of Hylobates lar and Pan paniscusJ. Anat. 206, 453-476.
  14. Payne RC, Veenman P and Wilson AM. (2004) The role of the extrinsic muscles of the equine thoracic limb. J. Anat. 206, 415-556.
  15. Crompton RHC, Li Y, Thorpe SK, Wang WJ, Savage R, PayneRC, Carey TC, Aerts P, Van Elsacker L, Hofstetter A., Günther MM, D’Aout K and DeClerq D (2003). Biomechanical Evolution of Erect Bipedality. Courier Forschuungsinstitut Senckenberg.

Book Chapters and Reviews

  1. 2002. Li, Y., Crompton, R.H.C., Wang, W.W., Savage, R., Günther, M.M. and Payne RC. Hindlimb-drive, hindlimb-steering? Functional differences between fore- and hindlimbs in chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) quadrupedalism. In: Anapol F, Jablonski N, editors. Shaping primate evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dr Stephanie Pierce

Stephanie is currently employed as an Assistant Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Harvard.


Stephanie graduated with an Honours in Palaeontology BSc degree from the University of Alberta, Canada. Directly following this, she pursued an MSc degree by research in Systematics and Evolution at the University of Alberta studying the anatomy and evolutionary relationships of extinct marine lizards. Her love of vertebrate evolution brought her to the University of Bristol, UK, where she embarked on a PhD degree which focused on assessing the interplay between skull shape variation and biomechanical performance in extant and extinct crocodiles. Stephanie subsequently began working as a Temporary Lecturer at the RVC in Evolutionary Biomechanics, examining the locomotion potential of early tetrapods. Stephanie is now working as an Assistant Professor Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Harvard and is a Curator of Vertibrate Paleontology in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Research Interests

Stephanie's scholarly interests are focused on assessing the link between form and function of the vertebrate skeletal system – especially with respect to muscle/skeletal interactions during feeding and locomotor behaviours in modern and extinct animals.

Stephanie has primarily been working on unravelling the locomotion potential of the earliest limbed vertebrates in collaboration with Prof Jenny Clack in the Museum of Zoology, Cambridge and Prof John Hutchinson at the Royal Veterinary College.

Selected Publications

Palaeo/Zoology Publications

Technical Publications


Educational Publications Profile

ResearchGate Profile

Mr Romain Pintore

Romain Pintore worked as a research assistant in the ERC-funded DAWNDINOS project with Prof. John Hutchinson as part of his PhD. His research focus on functional morphology applied to palaeontology, more precisely about how posture and locomotion evolved among early archosaurs by studying inner and outer adaptations of their limb bones.


After studying Geosciences in his native region of France, Romain obtained his MSc in Palaeontology and Evolutionary Biology from the Paris Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) in 2018. During this time he took part in various studies about dinosaurs’ limb bones and 3D imaging involving functional morphology, intraspecific morphological variations and retrodeformations. In addition, Romain enjoys volunteering in research activities, palaeontological fieldworks and outreach with audiences from all ages and backgrounds.


Romain’s research focus on vertebrate palaeontology, functional morphology and evolutionary biology. He is mostly interested in functional aspects of extinct animals, more particularly about how archosaurs moved because of their unique postural diversity. This is part of his PhD co supervised by Prof John R. Hutchinson and Dr Alexandra Houssaye from the ERC-funded GRAVIBONE project at MNHN/CNRS in Paris. In order to study posture and locomotion of extinct archosaurs, Romain uses a combination of 3D tools – such as geometric morphometrics – and statistics applied to 3D models of fossil and extant limb bones.


In addition to his research activities, Romain enjoys sharing his passion for palaeontology with non-scientific audience. One of his favourite outreach activities is to guide people through the palaeontological dinosaur site of Angeac Charente (France). This also involves communicating with children about excavation techniques and the study of vertebrate palaeontology and functional morphology. Romain also took part to the DAWNDINOS after-school club to interact with students about cutting-edge palaeontological techniques.

Dr Laura Porro


Laura was employed as a postdoctoral researcher in the Structure and Motion Laboratory working with Dr. Chris Richards on an ERC-funded project looking at the evolution of locomotion in amphibians that incorporates data from in vivo and in vitro experiments, medical imaging, computer modelling and paleo-robotics.

Laura attended the University of Illinois at Chicago, graduating with degrees in Biological Scie nces and Earth and Environmental Sciences in 2004. She completed her PhD in Palaeobiology (funded by a Gates Cambridge Scholarship) in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge in 2009, investigating anatomy and cranial biomechanics in heterodontosaurid dinosaurs. Laura was a postdoctoral scholar in the Department of Organismal Biology at the University of Chicago, using in vivo experimental methods and computer modeling to understand skull mechanics in crocodilians, lizards and primates. From 2012 - 2014, Laura was a Marie Curie Research Fellow based in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol and the Zoology Department at the University of Cambridge, exploring changes in morphology and function in the early tetrapod lower jaw across the water-land transition.


Frogs possess a unique skeleton thought to reflect adaptation to jumping. Yet living frogs are capable of running, walking, swimming, climbing and burrowing as well as jumping. How can such multi-functionality be acheived without compromising individual functions? What was the ancestral locomotor style for frogs and what drove the evolution of their unique body plan? Using a combination of medical imaging, computer modelling techniques (musculoskeletal, inverse kinematic, and finite element analysies) and experimental methods (high-speed video, XROMM, EMG, muscle physiology), my project investigates the correlation between musculoskeletal anatomy and function of the hind limbs in living AND fossil frogs to understand why these adaptations arose and how frogs acheived multi-functionality.

In addition to carrying out research at the RVC, Laura continued to work on fossil reptiles, early tetrapods and fish with collaborators across the UK, Europe, the USA and South America.

Selected Publications

Porro, L.B., Richards, C.T. In press. Digital dissection of the model organism Xenopus laevis using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Journal of Anatomy.

Clack, J.A., Porro, L.B., Bennett, C.E. In pressCrassigyrinus-like jaw from the Tournasian (Early Mississippian) of Scotland. Earth and Environmental Science Transations of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Porro, L.B., Collings, A.J., Eberhard, E.A., Chadwick, K.P., Richards, C.T. 2017Inverse dynamic modelling of jumping in the red-legged running frog Kassina maculataJournal of Experimental Biology220: 1882-1893.

Richards, C.T., Porro, L.B., Collings, A.J. 2017Kinematic crontrol of extreme jump angles in the red leg running frog (Kassina maculata). Journal of Experimental Biology. 220: 1894-1904. 

Larkin, N.R., Porro, L.B. 2016. Three legs good, four legs better: making a quagga whole again with 3D printing. Collection Forum (Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections). 30: 73-84.

Porro, L.B., Witmer, L.M., Barrett, P.M. 2015Digital preparation and osteology of the skull of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Ornithischia: Dinosauria). PeerJ. 3:e1494

Porro, L.B., Rayfield, E.J., Clack, J.A. 2015. Computed tomography, anatomical description and three-dimensional reconstruction of the lower jaw of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves, 1881 from the Upper Devonian of Canada. Palaeontology. 58: 1031-1047.

Porro, L.B., Rayfield, E.J., Clack, J.A. 2015. Descriptive anatomy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skull of the early tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik, 1952. PLOS ONE. 10 (3): doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118882.

Larkin, N.R., West, J., Porro, L.B. 2015Cleaning a dolphin skull and mandible to enable assessment of unusual mid-nineteenth century scrimshaw. Journal of Natural Sciences Collection. 2: 29-34.

Porro, L.B., Ross, C.F., Iriarte-Diaz, J., O’Reilly, J., Evans, S.E., Fagan, M.J. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology. 217: 1983-1992.

Porro, L.B., Metzger, K.A., Iriarte-Diaz, J., Ross, C.F. 2013. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensis. Journal of Anatomy223: 195-227.

Butler, R.J., Porro, L.B., Galton, P.M., Chiappe, L.M. 2012. Anatomy and cranial functional morphology of the small-bodied dinosaur Fruitadens haagorum from the Upper Jurassic of the USA. PLoS ONE. 7: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031556

Porro, L.B., Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., Moore-Fay, S., Abel, R.L. 2011. New heterodontosaurid specimens from the Lower Jurassic of southern Africa and the early ornithischian dinosaur radiation. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh101: 351-366.

Porro, L.B., Ross, C.F., Holliday, C.M., Anapol, F., Ontiveros, L.C., Ontiveros, L.T. 2011. Free-body analysis, beam mechanics, and finite-element modeling of the mandible of Alligator mississippiensisJournal of Morphology. 272: 910-937.

Ross, C.F., Berthaume, M.A., Dechow, P.C., Iriarte-Diaz, J., Porro, L.B., Richmond, B.G., Spencer, M., Strait, D. 2011. In vivo bone strain and finite-element modeling of the craniofacial haft in catarrhine primates. Journal of Anatomy218: 112-141.

Norman, D.B., Crompton, A.W., Butler, R.J., Porro, L.B., Charig, A.J. 2011. The Lower Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur Heterodontosaurus tucki Crompton and Charig, 1962: cranial anatomy, functional morphology, taxonomy and relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society163: 182-276.

Reed, D.A., Porro, L.B., Iriarte-Diaz, J., Lemberg, J., Holliday, C., Anapol, F., Ross., C.F. 2011. The impact of bone and suture material properties on mandibular function in Alligator mississippiensis: testing theoretical phenotypes with finite element analysis. Journal of Anatomy. 218: 59-74.

Butler, R.J., Galton, P.M., Porro, L.B., Chiappe, L.M., Erickson, G.M., Henderson, D.M. 2010. Lower limits of ornithischian dinosaur body size inferred from a new Upper Jurassic heterodontosaurid from North America.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences277: 375-381.

Maidment, S.C.R. and Porro, L.B. 2010. The palpebral of ornithischian dinosaurs: homology and function. Lethaia. 43: 95-111.

Butler, R.J., Porro, L.B., Norman, D.B. 2008. A juvenile skull of the primitive ornithischian dinosaur Heterodontosaurus tucki from the ‘Stormberg’ of southern Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology28: 702-711.

Butler, R.J., Porro, L.B., Heckert, A.B. 2006. A supposed heterodontosaurid tooth from the Rhaetian of Switzerland and a reassessment of the European Late Triassic record of Ornithischia (Dinosauria). Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte. 2006: 613-633.

For full list, see personal website (

Dr Steven Portugal

Following his role with the Structure and Motion lab as a Postdoctural Researcher, Steven took his current post in 2014 as a Lecturer in Animal Behaviour for the School of Biological Sciences at Royal Holloway University, 


2011-2014: EPSRC Postdoctural Researcher, Structure and Motion Laboratory, RVC. Steven worked with Professor Alan Wilson on the CARDyAL project, investigating flocking behaviour in birds. This project looked in particular at the potential aerodynamic benefits of "V" flight formation in migrating birds such as geese and ibis. 

2008-2011: Leverhulme/HFSP Postdoctural Researcher, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham

2004-2008: BBSRC funded PhD: School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham

2003-2004: ESF funded MSc in Ecology: School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales

2002: RSPB Research Assistant on the Shetland Islands.

1998-2001: BSc, University of Wales.


Steven classifies himself as a comparative ecophysiologist whose research is located at the interface of the physiology, sensory ecology and behaviour of vertebrates. 

For more information visit 

Dr Lei Ren

Dr Lei Ren

Lei is a Senior Lecturer for the School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester.


Lei graduated in Mechanical Engineering and then went on to complete a PhD in Vehicle Engineering from National Lab of Automotive Dynamic Simulation, Jilin University, P.R. China. He then came to England and worked on a UK Ministry of Defense project on biomechanics of human locomotion with load carriage, at the Centre for Rehabilitation and Human Performance Research, University of Salford.

Lei worked at the RVC from August 2005-October 2007, working on elephant locomotor performance with Dr. John R Hutchinson. Following this position he began working as a Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Manchester, but maintaining a presence in our lab.



Lei is interested in understanding biomechanics and motor control of animal and human locomotion using mathematical, physical and engineering methods (e.g. computational multi-body dynamics, dynamical system theory and non-linear time series analysis).

  • Predictive modelling of human, animal locomotion
  • Computational modelling of musculoskeletal system and neural control system
  • Load carriage biomechanics
  • Robotics
  • Clinical biomechanics
  • Functions of elastic and damping components in biomechanical systems
  • Development of computational software for biomechanics studies

Dr Kyle Roskilly

As of May 2018 Dr Kyle Roskilly is employed as an Industrial Impact Fellow at the University of Exeter.


Kyle graduated from the University of Southampton in 2004 with an MEng in Aerospace Engineering. Prior to moving to the RVC he worked in California for TiNi Aerospace in the manufacture of space-qualified, shape memory alloy actuation devices. Kyle also worked as a developer in central Canada for MicroPilot, a world-leader in miniature UAV autopilots.


Following his experience in industry and related academic projects, Kyle became interested in guidance and navigation, micro unmanned vehicles, and sensor fusion.

Kyle completed his PhD at the RVC, supervised by Alan Wilson and in partnership with Forsberg Services. His research focused on the development and deployment of low-cost, lightweight systems for precision motion tracking of humans and animals. This primarily involved utilisation of MEMS inertial sensors and GPS, and their integration using sensor fusion techniques to achieve an optimum solution for the dynamic environments experienced. 

Following his experience in industry and related academic projects, Kyle became interested in guidance and navigation, micro unmanned vehicles, and sensor fusion.

Kyle was employed as a postdoctoral researcher in Alan Wilson's lab on the LOCATE project, after working on CARDyAL and the Dynamics and Energetics of Hunting in the Cheetah

Dr Wiebke Schuett

Wiebke Schuett

Since 2012 Wiebke has been working as a Postdoctural researcher in the Division of Behavioural Biology, University of Hamburg. 


2011. Postdoctoral researcher: social networks, behaviour and locomotion in a transgenic sheep model of Huntington’s disease, Structure & Motion Lab, Royal Veterinary College, University of London (research group: Prof. Alan Wilson), University of Cambridge (Prof. Jenny Morton) & University College London (Prof. Stephen Hailes), UK

2010. Postdoctoral researcher: social information use in wild jackdaws, Corvus monedula, and pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, University of Helsinki, Finland (research group: Dr. Toni Laaksonen)

2009-2010. Postdoctoral researcher: raptor conservation project, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, UK (research group: Dr. David Hodgson)

2009. Postdoctoral researcher: ASAB grant (£4100) on life-history trade-offs and consistent behavioural differences in pea aphids, University of Osnabrueck, Germany (research group: Dr. Till Eggers)

2005-2008. Ph.D. on “Sexual selection and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata”, University of Exeter; main supervisor: Dr. Sasha Dall; 2nd supervisor: Prof. Tom Tregenza; external examiner: Prof. Ben Sheldon; including research visit at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Seewiesen, Germany (research group: Dr. Wolfgang Forstmeier)

2004. M.Sc. (Biology of Organisms), University of Osnabrueck

2003. B.Sc. (Biology of Organisms), University of Osnabrueck

Further practical experience

2009. Field assistant, University of Exeter

2005. Research assistant, University of Osnabrueck

2004. Field assistant, University of Osnabrueck


Selected Publications

  1. Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2009). Sex differences, social context and personality in zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. Animal Behaviour 77, 1041-1050.
  2. Schuett, W, Tregenza, T & SRX Dall (2010). Sexual selection and animal personality. Biological Reviews 85, 217-246.
  3. Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2010). Appearance, “state”, and behavior in male zebra finches,Taeniopygia guttata. Journal of Ethology 28, 273-286.
  4. Royle, NJ, Schuett, W & SRX Dall (2010). Behavioral consistency and the resolution of sexual conflict. Behavioral Ecology 21(6), 1125-1130.
  5. Schuett, W, Dall, SRX & NJ Royle (2011). Pairs of zebra finches with similar “personalities” make better parents. Animal Behaviour 81, 609-618.
  6. Schuett, W, Dall, SRX, Baeumer, J, Kloesener, MH, Nakagawa, S, Beinlich, F & T Eggers (2011). ‘Personality’ variation in a clonal insect: the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Developmental Psychobiology, 53, 631-640.
  7. Schuett, W, Godin, J-GJ & SRX Dall (2011). Do female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, choose their mates based on their “personality”? Ethology, 117, 908-917.

Emily Sparkes

Emily worked as the Senior Technician for the Structure & Motion group.


Before joining the RVC, Emily was awarded an MSc in Sport Biomechanics from the Manchester Metropolitan University.  Completed part time under sponsorship, this degree allowed Emily to carry out several external consultancy posts within British Swimming while studying.  She provided biomechanical and performance analysis support to teams including England Talent swim squad, GB Paralympic team and GB Water polo, both on international duty and during weekly training sessions.

Having secured world league status for the first time in ten years and overseen a successful Olympic campaign, Emily found her next career challenge in Hertfordshire at the RVC. Having to problem solve and create novel protocols on a daily basis make this style of research all the more rewarding.


Emily's research interests focus on improving human performance and the biomechanical analysis of elite aquatic sports.

Selected Publications

Sparkes, E.L., 2016. Research in Farriery- Gait analysis: more than meets the eye. Forge, 3 (4), pp.21-22.

Walker, A.M., Martin, A., Pfau, T., Sparkes, E.L., Wilson, A.M. and Witte, T.H., 2016. How realistic is a racehorse simulator?. Journal of Biomechanics,49(14), pp.3570-3575.

Walker, A.M., Applegate, C., Pfau, T., Sparkes, E.L., Wilson, A.M. and Witte, T.H., 2016. The kinematics and kinetics of riding a racehorse: A quantitative comparison of a training simulator and real horses. Journal of Biomechanics,49(14), pp.3368-3374.

Cuff, A.R., Sparkes, E.L., Randau, M., Pierce, S.E., Kitchener, A.C., Goswami, A. and Hutchinson, J.R., 2016. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles. Journal of Anatomy,229(1), pp.128-141.

Cuff, A.R., Sparkes, E.L., Randau, M., Pierce, S.E., Kitchener, A.C., Goswami, A. and Hutchinson, J.R., 2016. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles. Journal of Anatomy.

Portugal, S.J., Murn, C.P., Sparkes, E.L. and Daley, M.A., 2016. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird. Current Biology,26(2), pp.R58-R59.

Usherwood, J.R., Sparkes, E.L. and Weller, R., 2014. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically ‘hunting’ barn owl (Tyto alba). Journal of Experimental Biology,217(17), pp.3002-3005.

Dr Lauren Sumner-Rooney

After an undergraduate degree in Biological Sciences at the University of Oxford, Lauren completed a PhD in evolutionary neurobiology in December 2015 at Queen's University Belfast. This work focussed on sensory and nervous systems and their evolution, with comparative anatomy, behaviour and phylogenetics forming core tools for her research. These skills, and a passion for anatomy and science communication, brought Lauren to Professor Hutchinson's group at the RVC. Outreach and communication formed a key part of her role at the RVC. Lauren responsible for communicating the work of Prof. Hutchinson's group and the Structure and Motion lab both within and beyond the RVC, organising events, working with schools and science outreach programmes. She also co-founded and ran an RVC blog focussed on anatomy and zoology, Anatomy To You (

Dr Huiling Tan

Huiling tan

Huiling works as a Postdoctural Research Associate in the Medical Sciences Division, University of Oxford.


Huiling graduated with a BSc (Hons) from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China, in the field of Control Engineering. She started a project for her PhD in the University of Oxford in January 2003, conducting research on measurement uncertainties, sensor fusion and data processing. Huiling joined the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC in August 2006, working on a project designing wearable wireless sensors to monitor the performance of athletes in sprinting. Following this post, Huiling joined the University of Oxford in 2010 as a Research Fellow in Clinical Neuroscience.

Research Interests

  • uncertainty analysis
  • sensor fusion and signal processing
  • computer simulation and modelling of mechanical or biomechanical systems
  • model based control and fault detection



Cheng L, Tan H, Kuntze G, Bezodis IN, Hailes S, Kerwin DG, Wilson AM. A low-cost accurate speed tracking system for supporting sprint coaching. Journal of Sports Engineering & Technology (accepted for publication)

Bowtell MV, Tan H, Wilson AM. (2009) The consistency of maximum running speed measurements in humans using a feedback-controlled treadmill, and a comparison with maximum attainable speed during over ground locomotion. Journal of Biomechanics. 42(15):2569-74

Williams SB, Tan H, Usherwood JR, WILSON AM. (2009) Pitch then power: limitations to acceleration in quadrupeds. Biology Letters. 5(5):610-3 [pdf], [supplementary info] & [movie]


Tan H, Wilson AM. (2008). Measurement of stride parameters using a wearable GPS and inertial measurement unit. Journal of Biomechanics. 41: 1398-1406

Spence AJ, Tan H, Wilson AM. (2008) Accuracy of the TurfTrax Racing Data System for determination of speed and position. Equine Veterinary Journal. 40(7):680-3


Tan H, Dexter AL. (2006). Estimating airflow rates in air-handling units using actuator control signals. Building and Environment. 41(10) pp: 1291-1298.

Dr Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

Dr Dimitrios Tsaopoulos

Dimitrios is a Associate Researcher at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, University of Thessaly.


Dimitrios graduated with a BSc from the University of Thessaly, Greece, in the field of Sports Science. He started a project for his PhD in the Manchester Metropolitan University in September 2003 with Prof. Vasilios Baltzopoulos and Prof. Constantinos Maganaris. His PhD project was focused on in vivo human knee joint mechanics.

Dimitrios joined the Structure and Motion Lab at the RVC in March 2008 for a short postdoc, completed December 2009. He worked with Dr John Hutchinson on a project building 3D musculoskeletal models of a elephant forelimbs and hindlimbs, and continues to collaborate on this and other projects. Dimitrios subsequently returned to the University of Thessaly as a Part time Lecturer .


Research Interests

  • Biomechanics of bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion
  • Computer Simulation and musculoskeletal modelling
  • Measurement of joint and musculotendon forces during dynamic activities.


  1. Maganaris, C. N., V. Baltzopoulos, and D. Tsaopoulos. 2006. Muscle fibre length-to-moment arm ratios in the human lower limb determined in vivo. Journal of biomechanics 39(9):1663-1668.
  2. Tsaopoulos, D. E., V. Baltzopoulos, and C. N. Maganaris. 2006. Human patellar tendon moment arm length: measurement considerations and clinical implications for joint loading assessment. Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 21(7):657-667.
  3. Tsaopoulos, D. E., V. Baltzopoulos, P. J. Richards, and C. N. Maganaris. 2007. In vivo changes in the human patellar tendon moment arm length with different modes and intensities of muscle contraction. Journal of biomechanics 40(15):3325-3332.
  4. Tsaopoulos, D. E., C. N. Maganaris, and V. Baltzopoulos. 2007. Can the patellar tendon moment arm be predicted from anthropometric measurements? Journal of biomechanics 40(3):645-651.

Dr James Wakeling

Dr James Wakeling

James works as an Associate Professor for Simon Fraser University, Canada.


James studied for his PhD in insect aerodynamics at Cambridge and subsequently did postdoc research at St. Andrews into fish hydrodynamics and muscle physiology, and at Calgary into muscle recruitment during running. James started work at the RVC in 2004, where his research topics in locomotor biomechanics covered a range of mammalian species.

James left the RVC at the end of 2007 and to take up a post in Vancouver, Canada working in the School of Kinesiology at the Simon Fraser University.

Research directions

The role of different motor units to muscle function is poorly understood for locomotor tasks, and current research topics include establishing the link between different types of motor units and different movement tasks. One muscle task is the damping of soft-tissue vibrations which may be achieved by the preferential recruitment of a class of motor units. Being able to modify vibration input into a body through the altered design of shoes and equipment may thus play a role in athletic training and performance as well as in rehabilitation after injury.

The body interacts with external forces during movement, and these influence the muscle activity required for different tasks. For instance, using orthotic interventions can alter muscle activity patterns. It is thus possible that such interventions could be designed to cause specific changes in the muscle activity patterns with potential benefits to the relief of musculo-skeletal conditions such as patellofemoral pain and osteoarthritis.

Lameness in horses can be alleviated by a number of methods. The scientific evidence supporting the efficacy of some treatments is insubstantial. We are currently developing objective and quantitative measures for the assessment of lameness which will be used to assess different treatment regimes.

Published papers

  1. Wakeling, J.M. & Hodgson, J. (1992). Optimisation of the flight speed of the little, common, and sandwich tern. J. exp. Biol. 169, 261-266.
  2. Wakeling, J.M. (1993). Dragonfly aerodynamics and unsteady mechanisms: a review. Odonatologica 22, 319-333.
  3. Wakeling, J.M. (1997). Odonatan wing and body morphologies. Odonatologica 26, 35-52.
  4. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight I. Gliding flight and steady-state aerodynamic forces. J. exp. Biol. 200, 543-556.
  5. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight II. Velocities, accelerations, and kinematics of flapping flight. J. exp. Biol. 200, 557-582.
  6. Wakeling, J.M. & Ellington, C.P. (1997). Dragonfly flight III. Lift and power requirements. J. exp. Biol. 200, 583-600.
  7. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1998). Muscle power output limits fast-start performance in fish. J. exp. Biol. 201, 1505-1526.
  8. Wakeling, J.M., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). The biomechanics of fast-starts during ontogeny in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. J. exp. Biol. 202, 3057-3067.
  9. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). Body bending during fast-starts in fish can be explained in terms of muscle torque and hydrodynamic resistance. J. exp. Biol. 202, 675-682.
  10. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). White muscle strain in the common carp and red to white muscle gearing ratios in fish. J. exp. Biol. 202, 521-528.
  11. Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). Predicting muscle force generation during fast-starts for the common carp Cyprinus carpio. J. Comp. Physiol. B, 169, 391-401.
  12. Navas, C.A., James, R.S., Wakeling, J.M., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (1999). An integrative study of the temperature dependence of whole animal and muscle performance during jumping and swimming in the frog Rana temperaria. J. comp. Physiol. B, 169, 588-596.
  13. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2000). Un supporto per lâ€Tarco. (The use of orthotics during physical activities, in Italian). Sport & Medicina. 5, 33-35.
  14. Wakeling, J.M. (2000). Computational methods for the analysis of swimming biomechanics. Experimental Biology Online. 5: 2, 87-96.
  15. Temple, G.K., Wakeling, J.M. & Johnston, I.A. (2000). Seasonal changes in fast-starts in the short-horn sculpin: integration of swimming behaviour and muscle performance. J. Fish Biol. 56, 1435-1449
  16. Wakeling, J.M., Cole, N.J., Kemp, K.M. & Johnston, I.A. (2000). The biomechanics and evolutionary significance of thermal acclimation in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Am. J. Physiol. 279, R657-R665.
  17. Wakeling, J.M., Pascual, S.A., Nigg, B.M. & von Tscharner, V. (2001). Surface EMG shows distinct populations of muscle activity when measured during sustained exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 40-47.
  18. Wakeling, J.M., von Tscharner, V., Nigg, B.M. & Stergiou. (2001). Muscle activity in the leg is tuned in response to ground reaction forces. J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 1307-1317.
  19. Nigg, B.M. & Wakeling, J.M. (2001). Impact forces and muscle tuning: a new paradigm. Exercise and Sports Sciences Review 29, 37-41.
  20. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2001). Modification of soft tissue vibrations in the leg by muscular activity. J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 412-420].
  21. Wakeling, J.M. & Nigg, B.M. (2001). Soft tissue vibrations in the quadriceps measured with skin mounted transducers. J. Biomech. 34, 539-543.
  22. Wakeling, J.M. (2001). Biomechanics of fast-start swimming in fish. Comp. Biochem Physiol A, 131, 31-40.
  23. Wakeling, J.M., & Syme, D.A. (2002). Wave properties of action potentials from fast and slow motor units. Muscle Nerve 26, 659-668.
  24. Fernandez, D.A., Calvo, J., Wakeling, J.M., Vanella, F.A. & Johnston, I.A. (2002). Escape performance in the sub-Antarctic Notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus. Polar Biology 25, 914-920.
  25. Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M. & Rozitis, A.I. (2002). Muscle activity in the lower extremity damps the soft-tissue vibrations which occur in response to pulsed and continuous vibrations. J. Appl. Physiol. 93: 1093-1103.
  26. Wakeling, J.M., Pascual, S.A. & Nigg, B.M. (2002). Altering muscle activity in the lower extremities by running with different shoes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 34(9), 1529-1532.
  27. Wakeling, J.M., Kaya, M., Temple, G.K., Johnston, I.A. & Herzog, W. (2002). Determining patterns of motor recruitment during locomotion. J. exp. Biol. 205, 359-369.
  28. Wakeling, J.M., Liphardt, A-M. & Nigg, B.M. (2003). Muscle activity reduces soft-tissue resonance at heel-strike during walking. J. Biomech. 36, 1761-1769.
  29. Wakeling, J.M. & Rozitis A.I. (2004). Spectral properties of myoelectric signals from different motor units distinguished during ramped contractions of the leg extensors. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 2519-2528.
  30. Wakeling, J.M. (2004). Motor units are recruited in a task dependent fashion during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3883-3890.
  31. Wakeling, J.M. & Rozitis A.I. (2005). Motor unit recruitment during vertebrate locomotion. Animal Biology, 55, 41-58.
  32. Mundermann, A., Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M., Humble, R.N. & Stefanyshyn, D.J. (2005). Foot orthotics affect frequency components of muscle activity in the lower extremity. Gait Posture. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2005.03.004
  33. Wakeling, J.M. (2005). Fast-start mechanics. In: Fish Biomechanics: Fish Physiology vol. 23 (eds. G.Lauder & R. Shadwick), Academic Press, London, pp333-368.
  34. Wakeling, J.M. & Liphardt, A-M. (2005). Short communication: Task specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping. J. Biomech. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.03.009 .
  35. Nurse, M.A., Hulliger, M., Wakeling, J.M., Nigg, B.M. & Stefanyshyn, D.J. (2005) Changing the texture of footwear can alter gait patterns. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 15, 496-506.
  36. Cardinale, M. & Wakeling, J.M. (2005). Whole body vibration exercise. Are vibrations good for you? Invited B. J. Sports Med. 39, 585-589.
  37. Wakeling, J.M., Uehli, K., Rozitis, A.I. (2006). Muscle fibre recruitment can respond to the mechanics of the muscle contraction. Roy. Soc. Interface. DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2006. 0113.

Professor Renate Weller

After leaving the RVC, Professor Renate Weller Dr Med.Vet, PhD, MRCVS, FHEA took a position as Director of Veterinary Education at CVSAt the RVC she held the position of Professor in Comparative Imaging and Biomechanics.


At the RVC, Renate was Professor of Comparative Biomechanics and Imaging, dividing her time between clinical work, research and teaching in large animal diagnostic imaging and locomotor biomechanics.

After graduating from the University of Munich, Renate spent a year in the US before she returned to Germany to work in equine practice. She then became a senior clinical research scholar in large animal diagnostic imaging at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC).

After this she joined the Institute of Veterinary Anatomy in Munich, where she completed her Dr.Vet.Med. thesis on comparison of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of head disorders in the horse. Following this she spent two years in California before returning to the RVC to do a PhD in the Structure and Motion Laboratory investigating the effect of conformation on locomotor biomechanics in the horse.

Since 2005 Renate has been employed at the RVC dividing her time between clincial work in large animal diagnostic imaging and research in imaging, locomotor biomechanics and veterinary education.


Renate has three areas of research interests: diagnostic imaging, locomotor biomechanics and veterinary education.

Her diagnostic imaging reseach aims to establish the diagnostic value of the different imaging modalities available to large animals in the diagnosis of a variety of disorders and to develop and validate new imaging approaches to clinical and research questions.

On the biomechanics side she is particularly interested in comparative foot biomechanics ( and the effect of conformation on performance and risk of injury in the horse.

Her paedagogical research focuses on the use of research as part of a clinical curriculum and she has also designed and tested a series of teaching simulators.

Renate is on the editorial board of Equine Veterinary Journal and Anatomical Science Education and reviewer for more than 30 veterinary and basic science journals as well as grant awarding bodies. She was also external examiner for undergraduate and postgraduate courses and degrees nationally and internationally.


Please click here to go to google scholar for an up-to-date publication list.


Renate is very enthusiastic about teaching and has won the RVC's educator award three times. She has a Masters degree in Veterinary Education and delivers teaching sessions in a range of format in all parts of the curriculum. In addition to didactic and rotational teaching Renate has developed a series of clinical skills stations for students to practice clinical skills without the use of live animals.

She has supervised over 100 undergraduate and postgraduate research projects and one of her key aims is to instil an interest and enjoyment of research into undergraduate students.  


At the RVC, Renate spent 50% of her time on clinics and headed the large animal diagnostic imaging team. Her clinical responsibilities consisted of providing expertise at specialist level in the equine referral hospital of the Royal Veterinary College. She is one of the select Large animal associates of the ECVDI and author of several book chapters on equine diagnostic imaging as well as a sought after international speaker on this topic. She organised several CPD course in the field of equine diagnostic imaging and biomechanics every year (  


Renate has organised and run sessions on anatomy, biomechanics and imaging for the RVC residential Easter and Summer schools.

She has been involved with a series of sessions for horse owners in collaboration with the BHS and for ethnic minorities in collaboration with the local council.

She regularly provides sessions on and off-site for school children of different ages and backgrounds. She has presented her research work on several occassions on TV, including Channel 4s “Inside Nature’s giants – the racehorse” program as well as a variety of equestrian journals int the UK, US and Germany.

Dr Alexis Wiktorowicz Conroy

Alexis Wiktorowicz pursues a marine life


Alexis graduated with a biology degree from the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) in 2002. She pursued her interests in marine biology and comparative physiology, working with Terrie M Williams on seasonal differences in bottlenose dolphin blubber characteristics.

Inspired by the interaction between physiology and ecology, Alexis worked on her PhD with Malcolm S Gordon at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Here she studied the biomechanics and kinematics of swimming pufferfishes, which entailed examining locomotion patterns and measuring recoil movements and drag forces. Her collaborators included Dean Lauritzen, Mori Gharib (Caltech),Jay Hove (University of Cincinnati), Hao Liu (Chiba University, Japan) and John Dabiri (Caltech).

Alexis joined the Structure & Motion Lab in January 2008 to explore the field of terrestrial biomechanics. At present Alexis is working on the influence of locomotor behaviour on appendicular skeleton organisation at the macro and micro-structural levels.

Research Interests

  • Comparative and ecological physiology
  • Biomechanics of locomotion and manoeuvrability
  • Energetics
  • Flow visualisation (DPIV) and computational fluid dynamics.


Doube, M., Klosowski, M.M., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., Hutchinson, J.R., and S. Shefelbine. 2010. Scaling of bone trabeculae in birds and mammals maintains bone strain. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. March 9, 2011, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.0069

Pfau, T., Hinton, E., Whitehead, C., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., and J.R. Hutchinson. 2010. Temporal gait parameters in the alpaca and the evolution of pacing and trotting locomotion in the Camelidae. Journal of Zoology. Volume 283, Issue 3, pages 193-202, March 2011

Doube, M., Wiktorowicz-Conroy, A.M., Christiansen, P., Hutchinson, J.R., and S. Shefelbine. 2009. Three-dimensional geometric analysis of felid bone allometry. PLoS ONE. 4:e4742. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004742.

GORDON, M.S., LAURITZEN, D.V., and WIKTOROWICZ, A.M. (2008) Passive Mechanisms Controlling Posture and Trajectory in Swimming Fishes. In Biomechanisms of Swimming and Flying, ISABMEC (ed. N. Kato). Tokyo, Japan: Springer. Pg. 53-65.

WIKTOROWICZ, A.M., LAURITZEN, D.V., and GORDON, M.S. (2007) Passive and Powered Control Mechanisms Contributing to Smooth, Dynamically Stable Swimming in Pufferfishes. Experiments in Fluids. (43) 725-735.

GORDON, M.S., LAURITZEN, D.V., and WIKTOROWICZ, A.M. (2007) Unrecognized Passive Controls of Posture and Trajectory in Many Actively Swimming Aquatic Animals. The Proceedings of the Seventeenth (2007) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, ISOPE. Lisbon, Portugal. July 1-6, 2007. (2) 1138-1142.

Dr Thomas Witte

Tom worked at the RVC as an Equine Surgeon and Senior Lecturer. Recognised as an RCVS, American and European Specialist, his clinical interests include head and neck surgery and minimally invasive surgery. His research focuses on the biomechanics and control of the locomotor system and upper respiratory tract.


Tom qualified from The Royal Veterinary College in 2000. After a period in first opinion equine and farm animal practice (Garston Veterinary Group, Frome, Somerset) Tom returned to the Structure and Motion Lab at the Royal Veterinary College to complete a Horserace Betting Levy Board funded PhD in Equine Biomechanics, with a focus on the locomotor capacity of performance horses. A subsequent move to the USA enabled him to undertake an Internship in Equine Surgery at the Hagyard Equine Medical Institute in Kentucky and a Residency in Large Animal Surgery at the Cornell University Hospital for Animals in New York State.

After a role as Emergency Surgeon at the Equine Hospital of the Vetsuisse Fakultät, University of Bern in Switzerland, Tom returned to the RVC to pursue his clinical and research interests. Tom is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons and the European College of Veterinary Surgeons and is a Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons Recognised Specialist in Equine Surgery.


Tom developed an interest in the biomechanics of the equine athlete whilst an undergraduate in Veterinary Medicine at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC). During this time, he undertook research into the effects of shoe material on the biomechanics of foot-off in the horse.

Subsequently, his Horserace Betting Levy Board-funded PhD focused on the constraints to high-speed locomotion in the racehorse, and involved the development and validation of a suite of tools for determining limb load, trunk motion and animal velocity. These techniques enable the locomotion of a variety of species, including the horse, ostrich and camel, to be measured under ‘natural’ field conditions and form the basis of ongoing work at the Structure and Motion Lab. Key questions regarding the limitations to high-speed locomotion in the equine athlete, and how these relate to injury risk, remain unanswered, and these were the main focus of Tom's research at the RVC.

Upper respiratory tract diseases can result in critical performance limitations across all equine athletic disciplines. During his residency, Tom's research work at the Cornell University Equine Performance Testing Clinic focused on the biomechanics of surgical techniques for the treatment of dynamic upper respiratory tract obstruction. 


Tom's clinical interests lie in the area of general (soft tissue) surgery, including Equine, Farm Animal and Camelid species. In particular, through working at the Cornell University Equine Performance Testing Clinic he has developed a keen interest in upper respiratory tract surgery. A current focus is on refinement of the treatment of sinunasal disorders, including new techniques for dental extraction in the standing patient, and minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of diseases of the paranasal sinuses of the horse.

Selected Publications

See also:

E. Olsen, B. Dunkel, W.H.J. Barker, E.J.T. Finding, J.D. Perkins, T.H. Witte, L.J. Yates, K. Baiker, R.J. Piercy (2014) Rater Agreement on Gait Assessment during Neurologic Examination of Horses Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 28(2), 630-638

T. Pfau, C. Spicer-Jenkins, R. Smith, D. Bolt, A. Fiske-Jackson, T.H. Witte (2014)
Identifying optimal parameters for quantification of changes in pelvic movement symmetry as a response to diagnostic analgesia in the hind limbs of horses (Equine Veterinary Journal, Epub ahead of print)

C. Koch, T.H. Witte (2014) Invited Clinical Commentary: Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in the horse Equine Veterinary Education26(3), 121-125

T.H. Witte, M. Wilke, C. Stahl, V. Jakesova, R. Haralambus, R. Straub (2013) Use of a hand-assisted laparoscopic surgical technique for closure of an extensive mesojejunal rent in a horse Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 243(8), 1166-1169

W. Barker, J. Perkins and T.H. Witte (2013) Three horses with bilateral sinonasal progressive haematomata not associated with the ethmoidal labyrinth. Equine Veterinary Education 25(10), 503–507

P. Gunning, A. Smith, V. Fox, D.M. Bolt, J. Lowe, C. Sinclair, T.H. Witte, R. Weller (2013)
Development and validation of an equine nerve block simulator to supplement practical skills training in undergraduate veterinary students. Veterinary Record 172(17), 450

Theriogenology question of the month RM Radcliffe, T.H. Witte, S.L. Fubini, N.G. Ducharme, S.H. Cheong & R.O. Gilbert (2012) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 241(4), 439-442 PMID: 22852567

Fungal sinusitis resulting in suspected trigeminal neuropathy as a cause of headshaking in five horses A.R. Fiske-Jackson, P.J. Pollock, T.H. Witte, L. Woolford & J.D. Perkins (2012) (Published online, Equine Veterinary Education)

Accuracy and precision of hind limb foot contact timings of horses determined using a pelvis-mounted inertial measurement unit S.D. Starke, T.H. Witte, S.A. May & T. Pfau (2012) Journal of biomechanics 45(8),1522-8 PMID 22483227

Intra-lesional insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) injection for the treatment of superficial digital flexor tendonitis in Thoroughbred racehorses: 40 cases (2000-2005) T.H. Witte, A.E. Yeager and A.J. Nixon (2011) 239(7), 992-997

Early diagnosis may hold the key to successful treatment of nasal and paranasal sinus neoplasia in the horse T.H. Witte & J.D. Perkins (2011) Equine Veterinary Education 23(9), 441-447

Association of owner-reported noise with findings during dynamic respiratory endoscopy in Thoroughbred racehorses Witte SHP, Witte TH, Harriss F, Kelly G & Pollock P. Equine Vet J. 2011 Jan;43(1):9-17. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00152.x. PubMed PMID: 21143628.

The complex role of veterinary clinical teachers: how is their role perceived and what is expected of them? Bolt DM, Witte TH, Lygo-Baker S. J Vet Med Educ. 2010 Winter;37(4):388-94. PubMed PMID: 21135407.

Equine Laryngoplasty Sutures Undergo Increased Loading During Coughing and Swallowing. Witte TH, Cheetham J, Soderholm LV, Mitchell LM, Ducharme NG.
Vet Surg. 2010 Dec;39(8):949-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2010.00742.x. Epub 2010
Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 21044095.

A transducer for measuring force on surgical sutures Witte TH, Cheetham J, Rawlinson JJ, Soderholm LV, Ducharme NG. Can J Vet Res. 2010 Oct;74(4):299-304. PubMed PMID: 21197230; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2949343.

Cytokine and catabolic enzyme expression in synovium, synovial fluid and articular cartilage of naturally osteoarthritic equine carpi. Kamm JL, Nixon AJ, Witte TH.
Equine Vet J. 2010 Nov;42(8):693-9. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00140.x. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Racing performance after combined prosthetic laryngoplasty and ipsilateral ventriculocordectomy or partial arytenoidectomy: 135 Thoroughbred racehorses competing at less than 2400 m (1997-2007). Witte TH, Mohammed HO, Radcliffe CH, Hackett RP, Ducharme NG. Equine Vet J. 2009 Jan;41(1):70-5. PubMed PMID: 19301585.

In vitro model for testing novel implants for equine laryngoplasty. Cheetham J, Witte TH, Soderholm LV, Hermanson JW, Ducharme NG. Vet Surg. 2008 Aug;37(6):588-93. PubMed PMID: 19134110.

Intra-articular stabilisation of the equine cricoarytenoid joint. Cheetham J, Witte TH, Rawlinson JJ, Soderholm LV, Mohammed HO, Ducharme NG. Equine Vet J. 2008 Sep;40(6):584-8. PubMed PMID: 18487098.

Gene therapy in musculoskeletal repair. Nixon AJ, Goodrich LR, Scimeca MS, Witte TH, Schnabel LV, Watts AE, Robbins PD. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:310-27. Review. PubMed PMID: 18056051.

Effect of speed on stride parameters in racehorses at gallop in field conditions. Witte TH, Hirst CV, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2006 Nov;209(Pt 21):4389-97. PubMed PMID: 17050854.

Centre of mass movement and mechanical energy fluctuation during gallop locomotion in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Pfau T, Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2006 Oct;209(Pt 19):3742-57. PubMed PMID: 16985191.

A method for deriving displacement data during cyclical movement using an inertial sensor. Pfau T, Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;208(Pt 13):2503-14. PubMed PMID: 15961737.

Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground. Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Biomech. 2005 Aug;38(8):1717-22. PubMed PMID: 15958230.

Accuracy of non-differential GPS for the determination of speed over ground. Witte TH, Wilson AM. J Biomech. 2004 Dec;37(12):1891-8. PubMed PMID: 15519597.

Determination of peak vertical ground reaction force from duty factor in the horse (Equus caballus). Witte TH, Knill K, Wilson AM. J Exp Biol. 2004 Oct;207(Pt 21):3639-48. PubMed PMID: 15371472.

Dr Ashleigh Wiseman


Dr Ashleigh Wiseman
Ashleigh Wiseman

Ashleigh completed her MSc in Human Anatomy and Evolution 2015 at the Hull York Medical School, where she was involved in a project analysing craniodental biomechanics of primate mastication. Her interest in biomechanics led her to pursue a PhD in evolutionary biomechanics of locomotion in hominins at Liverpool John Moores University. She studied human substrate navigation using a range of kinematic methods and reconstructed hominin limb posture from fossilised footprints. She is actively involved in a number of external projects focusing on functional morphology of both footprints and the foot. Ashleigh is particularly interested in simulating locomotion from fossil data. In 2017 Ashleigh won the British Federation of Women Graduates outstanding award for research.

In 2020 Ashleigh was awarded a BA/Leverhulme Small Research Grant to conduct fieldwork at White Sands National Park on fossil footprints.   

Press releases:


Selected Publications

Wiseman, AL, Bishop, PJ, Demuth, OE, Cuff, AR, Michel, KB and Hutchinson JR. 2021. Musculoskeletal modelling of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) hindlimb: Effects of limb posture on leverage during terrestrial locomotion. Journal of Anatomy, 00:1-21.

Bennett, M.R., Bustos, D., Odess, D., Urban, T.M., Lallensack, J.N., Budka, M., Santucci, V.L., Martinez, P., Wiseman, A.L.A and Reynolds, S.C., 2020. Walking in mud: Remarkable Pleistocene human trackways from White Sands National Park (New Mexico). Quaternary Science Reviews, 249, p.106610.

Wiseman, A. L. A., Stringer, C. B., Ashton, N. Bennett M. R., Hatala, K. G., Duffy, S., O’Brien, T., De Groote, I. E. (2020). The morphological affinity of the early Pleistocene footprints from Happisburgh, England with other tracks of Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene age. Journal of Human Evolution. 

Wiseman, A. L. A., Bezombes, F., Moore, A. J. & De Groote, I. E. (2020). Noninvasive recording methods: the applicability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology for recording fossilised footprints in situ. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. 

Wiseman, A. L. A., De Groote, I. E. (2018). A three-dimensional geometric morphometric study of the effects of erosion on the morphologies of modern and prehistoric footprints. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports, 17, 93-102.

Falkingham, P. L., Bates, K. T., Avanzini, M., Bennett, M., … Wiseman, A.L.A., … Belvedere, M.. (2018). A standard protocol for documenting modern and fossil ichnological data. Palaeontology 61(4): 469-480.  


Comparative Animal Locomotion - BSc2  


Ashleigh has been involved in a number of outreach projects since 2011, having worked on events for National Museums Scotland, the World Museum in Liverpool and National Museums Liverpool. Many of these events have been quite popular, such as the BBC Prehistoric Autopsy at the National Museums Edinburgh, and the Festival of Archaeology in Liverpool.  In the DAWNDINOS project at the RVC, Ashleigh has been involved in the DinoClub, which is a project that travels to local schools showcasing palaeontology, biomechanics and science in general to school pupils.

Links to some previous events:

Festival of Archaeology 2016 – National Museums Liverpool –

Meet the Scientist 2017 – World Museum, Liverpool – “Hominin skulls”

Meet the Scientist 2018 – World Museum, Liverpool – “Meet the ancestors: the Laetoli footprints”

Formby Footprint tours with the National Trust – 2016-2018 

New Scientist Live 2019:

BC Prehistoric Autopsy


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