Tackling and understanding AMR through an interdisciplinary and One Health Approach. 

AMR sampling site in County Kajiado, Kenya

Challenge       

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is significant and growing challenge to global health. Existing antimicrobials are becoming less effective and pathogenic organisms are increasing the rate at which they become resistant to treatment.

This is a complex problem, with many different factors driving the emergence of AMR at many different levels.

The One Health approach recognises the relationship between health and disease at the human, animal and environment interfaces and has become an important focus in both medical and veterinary science. It promotes a “whole of society” treatment of health hazards and a systemic change of perspective in the management of risk. It consequently has great relevance to tackling AMR.      

Phase contrast micrographs: Clostridium difficile

Solution      

To tackle this complex threat, interdisciplinary One Health approaches are crucial. One Health is the concept that human health, animal health and the environment are all connected. One Health approaches combine the efforts of multiple disciplines – such as human and veterinary medicine, ecology, sociology, epidemiology, and economics – to facilitate an interdisciplinary approach.

Here at the RVC we are carrying out research addressing AMR from a One Health perspective. Using interdisciplinary approaches our research is addressing this problem both in the UK and worldwide, with particular focus on developing countries through our membership of the London International Development Centre and collaborations with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and SOAS.

Our areas of interest and expertise range from understanding antimicrobial usage and the epidemiology and economics of AMR, through to developing alternative therapies, understanding pathogenesis and resistance mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics and mathematical modelling.   

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli isolated from wild birds

Impact     

These featured projects below are just a few of the wide-ranging national and international studies currently ongoing at the RVC.

AMFORA: Aquaculture systems are growing in importance and there is a strong transition of small-scale farming to industrial intensification in low and middle-income countries. This transition is likely to be driving the extensive and often indiscriminate use of antibiotics in these systems to treat or prevent disease and increase productivity.

The aim of the AMFORA project is to use a ‘systems-thinking’ approach to map aquaculture systems and identify potential hotspots for the emergence and selection of resistance and human exposure to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms. This will enable the identification of potential drivers of ABU and interventions to reduce ABU.

One Health Poultry Hub: The hub will address the need to meet rising demand for poultry meat and eggs in developing countries, while minimising risk to international public health.

The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub will adopt a ‘One Health’ approach to the issue of combatting animal-to-human diseases by bringing together a team of laboratory, clinical, veterinary and social scientists. This team will test and evaluate novel interventions.

PET-Risk: The often-close contact between pets and humans provides opportunities for transmission of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and of their resistance genes in either direction.
Through this project, an international consortium will compare this risk of transmission to people from pets suffering with skin and soft tissue infections and from those diagnosed with urinary tract infections. The study will allow measurement of the critical control points at which interventions could substantially affect the spread of resistance.   

Partners       

OIE (World Organisation for Global Health)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Animal & Plant Health Agency

Public Health England

Publications

Title Publication Year
Overview and Evaluation of Existing Guidelines for Rational Antimicrobial Use in Small-Animal Veterinary Practice in Europe Antibiotics 2021
Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance of Environmental and Clinical Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Ornamental Fish and Associated Farming Environment in Sri Lanka  Microorganisms 2021
Unsafe "crossover-use" of chloramphenicol in Uganda: importance of a One Health approach in antimicrobial resistance policy and regulatory action Journal of Antibiotics 2021
Micellar Antibiotics of Bacillus Pharmaceutics 2021
Evaluating integrated surveillance for antimicrobial use and resistance in England: a qualitative study Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021
Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study Pathogens 2021
Successful management of aspiration pneumopathy without antimicrobial agents in 14 dogs JSAP 2021
Antimicrobial activity of polyhexamethylene biguanide nanoparticles against mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus JDS 2021
Assessment of evaluation tools for integrated surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance based on selected case studies Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021
Exploring the barriers and incentives towards effective surveillance for antimicrobial and anthelmintic usage (AMHU) in beef cattle and sheep in Great Britain Research report 2021
AMHU Surveillance GB Beef Cattle and Sheep Research Brief 2021 Research brief 2021
Evaluating the Integration of One Health in Surveillance Systems for Antimicrobial Use and Resistance: A Conceptual Framework Frontiers in Veterinary Science 2021
Genes on the Move: In Vitro Transduction of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes between Human and Canine Staphylococcal Pathogens Microorganisms 2021
Characterisation and mapping of the surveillance system for Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use in the United Kingdom Veterinary Record 2021
Antimicrobial resistance preparedness in sub-Saharan African countries Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 2020
Genetic diversity and risk factors for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance across human, animals and environmental compartments in East Africa: a review Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 2020
What drives antimicrobial prescribing for companion animals? A mixed-methods study of UK veterinary clinics Preventative Veterinary Medicine 2020
What are the barriers to implementing national antimicrobial resistance action plans? A novel mixed-methods policy analysis in Pakistan Health Policy and Planning 2020
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for aerobic bacteria isolated from reptilian samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory: 129 cases (2005–2016) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2020
A history of antimicrobial drugs in animals: Evolution and revolution Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2020
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Veterinarians Towards Antimicrobial Resistance and Stewardship in Nigeria Antibiotics 2020
Responsible antimicrobial use in critically ill adult horses BEVA 2020
Overview of Evidence of Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain Antibiotics 2020
Antifungal Polymeric Materials and Nanocomposites Medical Devices & Sensors 2020
Antimicrobial Resistance Diversity Suggestive of Distinct Salmonella Typhimurium Sources or Selective Pressures in Food-Production Animals Frontiers in Microbiology 2019
Structure–Activity Study, Characterization, and Mechanism of Action of an Antimicrobial Peptoid D2 and Its d- and l-Peptide Analogues Molecules 2019
Prediction of Phenotypic Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles from Whole Genome Sequences of Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica Frontiers of Microbiology 2018
Adaptive responses to cefotaxime treatment in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and the possible use of significantly regulated pathways as novel secondary targets The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2016
Antimicrobial Resistance: The Use of Antimicrobials in the Livestock Sector OECD 2014

 

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