We have collected here a number of published papers and articles published in the veterinary, farming and other press on the subject of BVD.

We also include short reviews of published papers on BVD and Mucosal Disease.

Published Papers

Booth, R E, Thomas C J, El-Attar, L M R, Gunn, G & Brownlie, J. (2013). A phylogenetic analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) isolates from six different regions of the UK and links to animal movement dataVet Research 2013, 44:43 Booth et al 2013 Vet Research

Booth, R E, Cranwell, M P & Brownlie, J. (2013). Monitoring the bulk milk antibody response to BVD: the effects of vaccination and herd infection status. Vet Rec 2013 Apr 27;172;449 doi:10.1136/vr.101195 Booth et al 2013 Vet Rec

Iourin, O, Harlos, K, El Omari, K, Lu Weixian, Kadlec, J, Iqbal, M, Meier, C, Palmer, A, Jones, I, Thomas, C, Brownlie, J, Grimes, J M & Stuart D I.  (2013).  Expression, purification and crystallisation of the ectodomain of the envelope glycoprotein E2 from Bovine viral diarrhoea virus Acta Cryst (2013) F69(Pt 1);35-38 Iourin et al 2013

Lanyon, S R, Hill, F I, Reichel, M P & Brownlie, J. (2013) Bovine Viral Diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosisVeterinary Journal 2013http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.07.024

Booth, R E & Brownlie, J. (2012). Establishing a pilot bovine viral diarrhoea virus eradication scheme in Somerset. Veterinary Record 2012 Jan 21;170(3):73 Booth & Brownlie 2011

Burr, S, Thomas, C, Brownlie, J, Offord, V, Coffey, T J & Werling, D. (2012). Potential evidence for biotype-specific chemokine profile following BVDV infection of bovine macrophagesVet Immunol Immunopathol (2012)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.08.009

Gibson, A, Miah, S, Griebel, P, Brownlie, J & Werling, D. (2011). Identification of a lineage negative cell population in bovine peripheral blood with the ability to mount a strong type I interferon response. Developmental and Comparative Immunology36(2012)332-341 Gibson et al 2012

Gibson, A, Larsson, J, Bateman, M, Brownlie, J, & Werling, D. (2011). Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strain- and Cell type-Specific Inhibition of Type I Interferon PathwaysJ VirolApr 2011; 85(7):3695-3697 Gibson et al 2011

Anstaett, O L, Brownlie, J & Collins M E & Thomas, C J.  (2010).  Validation of endogenous reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in bovine lymphoid cells (BL3) infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV).  Vet Immmunology & Immunopathology 137:201-207. 20580438

Makoschey, B, Franken, P, Mars, J M, Dubois, E, Schroeder, C, Thiry, J, Alvarez, M, Rypula, K, Cavirani, S, Arnaiz, I, Houtain, J Y, Bartak, P, Brownlie, J, Wolf, G, Meyer, G, Klees, W, Beer, M, Moennig, V & Thiry, E. (2010). IBR and BVD control: the key to successful herd management. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2010 Nov-Dec;123(11-12):519-21, 516-8. 2010 IBR and BVD control - the key to successful herd management

Collins, M E, Heaney, J, Thomas, C J & Brownlie, J. (2009) Infectivity of Pestivirus following persistence of acute infection. Vet Micro 138:289-296. Collins_2009_ Vet Micro

Thomas, C, Young, N J, Heaney, J, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (2009). Evaluation of efficacy of mammalian and baculovirus expressed E2 subunit vaccines candidates to bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Vaccine 27:2387-2393. Thomas_2009_Vaccine

Lindberg, A, Brownlie, J, Gunn, G J, Houe, H, Moennig, V, Saatkamp, H W, Sandvik, T, Valle, P S.  (2006).  The control of bovine diarrhoea virus in Europe:  today and in the future.  Rev Sci tech Offic Int Epiz25:961-979. Lindberg_Rev Sci tech_2006

Young, N J, Thomas, C J, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J.  (2006).  Real-time RT-PCR detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in whole blood using an external RNA reference. Journal of Virological Methods 138: 218-222 Young_2006_Journal-of-Virological-Methods

Werling, D, Rurik, A, Heaney, J, Moeller, E & Brownlie, J.  (2005).  Ability to differentiate between cp and ncp BVDV by microarrays:  Towards an application in clinical veterinary medicine.  Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology Oct 18;  108:157-164Werling_2005_Veterinary-Immunology-and-Immunopathology

Young, N J, Thomas, C J, Thompson, I, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J.  (2005).  Immune responses to non-structural protein 3 (NS3 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in NS3 DNA vaccinated and naturally infected cattle.  Preventative Veterinary MedicineNov 15; 72:115-120. Young_2005_Preventive-Veterinary-Medicine_1

Stokstad, M., Collins M. E., Brownlie, J. (2004) Analysis of variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus E2 sequence following transplacental infection of cattle. Vet Microbiol Sep 8; 102(3-4):141-145 Stokstad_2004_Veterinary-Microbiology

Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie J & Collins, ME.  (2003).  DNA vaccination against bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces humoral and cellular responses in cattle with evidence for protection against viral challenge.  Vaccine, 2003 May 16; 21(17-18):2091-2101. Nobiron_2003_Vaccine

Stokstad, M., Collins M. E., Sorby R., Barboni, P, Meyers, G, Løken T. and Brownlie, J. (2003)The role of a defective interfering particle DI9c in mucosal disease in cattleArch Virol Mar 2004; 149(3):571-82 Arch of Viro 2004

Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie, J & Collins, M E.  (2001).  Cytokine adjuvancy of BVDV DNA vaccine enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses in miceVaccine 19:4226-4235

Brownlie, J, Thompson, I & Curwen, A. (2000).  Bovine virus diarrhoea virus – strategic decisions for diagnosis and control.  In Practice 22:176-187. In Practice Article

Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie, J & Collins, M E.  (2000).  Co-administration of IL-2 enhances antigen-specific immue responses following vaccination with DNA encoding the glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus.  Veterinary Microbiology 76:129-142. Nobiron_2000_Veterinary-Microbiology

Booth, P J, Collins, M E, Jenner, L, Prentice, H, Ross, J, Badsberg, J H, & Brownlie J.  (1999). Association of non-cytopathogenic BVDV with bovine blastocysts:  effects of washing, duration of viral exposure and degree of blastocyst expansion. Veterinary Record 144:150-152 Vet Rec 1999

Collins, M E, Desport, M & Brownlie, J.  (1999).  Bovine viral diarrhea virus quasispecies during persistent infection.  Virology 259:85-98. Collins_1999_Virology

Booth, P J, Collins, M E, Jenner, L, Prentice, H, Ross, J, Badsberg, J H & Brownlie, J.  (1998). Noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) reduces cleavage but increases blastocyst yield of in vitro produced embryos.  Theriogenology 50: 769-777. Booth_1998_Theriogenology

Brownlie, J, Hooper, L B, Thompson, I & Collins, M E.  (1998).  Maternal recognition of foetal infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) - the bovine pestivirus.Clinical and Diagnostic Virology 10:141-150 Brownlie 1998 Clin Diag Viro

Desport, M, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1998). Genome instability in BVDV: an examination of the sequence and structural influences on RNA recombination.Virology 246:352-361. Desport_1998_Virology

Brownlie, J, Booth, P J, Stevens, D A & Collins, M E. (1997).  Expression of non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in oocytes and follicles of persistently infected cattle. Veterinary Record 141:335-337  (plus colour illustrationsVeterinary Record 141:425) Brownlie 1997 Vet Rec

Innocent, G, Morrison, I, Brownlie, J & Gettinby G.  (1997).  A computer simulation of the transmission of immunity and survival of persistently infected animals on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy cattle.  Epidemiol Infect 119(1):91-100Epi Infect 1997

Innocent, G, Morrison, I, Brownlie, J & Gettinby G.  (1997).  The use of a mass-action model to validate the output from a stochastic simulation model of bovine viral diarrhoea virus spread in a closed dairy herd.  Prev Vet Med 31(3-4):199-209.Innocent_1997_Preventive-Veterinary-Medicine

Booth, P J, Stevens, D A, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1995).  Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen and RNA in oviduct and granulosa cells of persistently infected cattle.  J Reprod Fert 105:17-24 J Repro Fert 1995

Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1995).  Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) biotype distribution in the progress of intestinal lesions. Bull Soc Franco-Japonaise Sci Vet6: 77-81 Brownlie 1995 Bull Soc Franco

Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C, Hooper, L B & Bell, G D.  (1995).  Protection of the bovine foetus from bovine virus diarrhoea virus by use of a new inactivated vaccine (Torvac-BVD). Vet Record 137:58-62 Brownlie 1995 Vet Rec

Brownlie, J.  (1994).  The management and control of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in cattle herds. Cattle Practice 4:24-36 Brownlie 1994 Cattle Prac

Desport, M, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1994).  Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus RNA by in situ hybridisation with Digoxigenin-Labelled Riboprobes. Intevirology37:269-276 Desport 1994 Intervirology

Howard, C J, Clarke, M C, Sopp, P & Brownlie, J. (1994).  Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challengeVet. Micro 42:171-179. Howard_1994_Veterinary-Microbiology

Sopp, P, Hooper, L B, Clarke, M C, Howard, C J and Brownlie, J. (1994).  Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus p80 protein in subpopulations of bovine leucocytes.  Journal of General Virology 75:1189-1194. Sopp_Journal of Gen Viro_1994

Hibberd, R C, Turkington, A & Brownlie, J.  (1993).  Fatal bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of adult cattle.  Vet Rec 132(9):227 Hibberd 1993 Vet Rec

Howard, C J, Clarke, M C, Sopp, P & Brownlie, J. (1992).  Immunity to bovine virus diarrhoea virus in calves: the role of different T-cell subpopulations analysed by specific depletion in vivo with monoclonal antibodies.  Vet Immunol Immunopath  32: 303-314 Howard 1992 Vet Imm

Brownlie, J. (1991). The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of diseaseArch Virol  3:79-96 Brownlie 1991 Arch Virol

Brownlie, J. (1990).  Pathogenesis of mucosal disease and molecular aspects of bovine virus diarrhoea virus.  Veterinary Microbiology 23:371-382 Brownlie 1990 Vet Micro

Brownlie, J. (1990).  The pathogenesis of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz9:43-59 Brownlie 1990 Rev Sci Tec

Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1990).  Bovine virus diarrhoea virus: speculation and observations on current concepts.  Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz, 7:223-230 Brownlie 1990 Rev Sci Tech Off int Epiz

Desport, M & Brownlie J. (1990).  Molecular characterisation of the coding region for p.125 for homologous BVDV biotypes.  Arch Virol S3:261-266 Desport 1991 Arch Virol

Mignon, B, Schwers, A, Waxweiler, S, Boulanger, D, Dubuisson, J, Brownlie, J & Pastoret, P P. (1990).  Etude de la stabilite antigenique d’une souche non cytopathogene de virus BVD chez des animaux infectes experimentalement de maniere persistante.  Ann Med Vet 134:325-329 Mignon 1990 Ann Med Vet

Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989).  Enfermedad de las mucosas-estudios secuenciales sobre la infectividad del virus de la diarrea virica bovina (BVD) sobre el tejido linfatico intestinal.  Med. Vet., 6:3-8 Brownlie 1989 Med Vet

Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989).  Experimental infection of cattle in early pregnancy with a cytopathic strain of bovine virus diarrhoea virus.  Research in Veterinary Science 116:307-311 Brownlie 1989 Res Vet Sci

Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989). The failure of the cytopathogenic biotype of bovine virus diarrhoea virus to induce tolerance. Immunobiology 4:151Brownlie 1989 Immunobio

Clarke, M C, BrownlieJ, & Howard, C J. (1989). The effect of immunosuppression with corticosteroid on the infection of calves with bovine virus diarrhoea. Immunobiology 4:152 Clarke 1989 Immuno

Howard, C J, Clarke, M C, Brownlie J & Sopp, P. (1989). Effect of in vivo depletion of BoT4+ and BoT8+ lymphocytes with monoclonal antibodies on infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus in calvesImmunobiology 4:154 Howard 1989 Immunobio

Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1989).  Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody. Veterinary Microbiology 19:195-203 Vet Micro Paper

Brownlie, J. (1988). Mucosal disease - A pestilence of cattle.  Journal of Royal Agricultural Society, England 150:145-152 Brownlie 1988 RASE

Brownlie, J, Clarke M C, Howard, C J & Pocock, D H.  (1987).  Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus Infection of cattle.  Ann Rech Vet18:157-166 Brownlie 1987 Ann Rech Vet

Howard, C J, Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1987).  Comparison by the neutralisation assay of pairs of non-cytopathogenic and cytopathogenic strains of bovine virus diarrhoea virus isolated from cases of mucosal disease.  Veterinary Microbiology13: 361-369 Howard et al Vet Micro

Pocock, D H, Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1987).  Variation in the intracellular polypeptide profiles from different isolates of bovine virus diarrhoea virusArchives of Virology 94:43-53 Pocock 1987 Arch Virol

Howard, C J, Brownlie, J & Thomas, L H. (1986).  Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea virus viraemia in cattle in the UK.  Veterinary Record 119:628-629 Howard 1986 Vet Rec

Brownlie, J. (1985).  Clinical aspects of the bovine virus diarrhoea/mucosal disease complex in cattle.  In Practice 7:195-202 Brownlie 1985 In Practice

Brownlie, J. (1985).  BVD - understanding the nature of infection.  Proc. British Cattle Veterinary Association 109-111 Brownlie 1985 BCVA

Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1985).  An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in cattle sera.  Veterinary Microbiology 10: 359-369 Howard 1985 Vet Micro

Brownlie, J, Nuttall, PA, Stott, E J, Taylor, G & Thomas, L H.  (1980).  Experimental infection of calves with two strains of bovine virus diarrhoea virus: certain immunological reactions.  Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 1: 371-378 Brownlie 1980 Vet Imm & Immunopath 

BVD Press Articles

"Scotland prepares for new phase of BVD eradication" - Farmers Guardian - 10 Apr 2015 - Farmers Guardian 10 Apr 2015

"Live Vaccine offers hope against BVD" - Farmers Guardian - 27 Mar 2015 - Farmers Guadian 27 Mar 2015

"Do Type 2 viruses pose a risk to bovine viral diarrhoea virus control in the UK?" - Livestock - Vol 20 No 2 March/April 2015 - Prof Joe Brownlie & Dr Richard Booth - Livestock Vol 20 No 2 March/April 2015

"Plan vaccine timings to help protected stock" - Farmers Guardian - 13 February 2015 - Famers Guardian 13 Feb 2015

"Calls for BVD status of all cattle to be declared in Scottish marts" - Farmers Guardian - 6 February 2015 - Farmers Guardian 6 Feb 2015

"Prospects for English BVD control programme" - Farmers Guardian - 14 November 2014 - Farmers Guardian 14 November 2014

"BVD survey highlights confusion" - British Dairying - November 2014 - British Dairying November 2014

"Biosecurity key to effective BVD control" - Farmers Guardian - 10 October 2014 - Farmers Guardian 10 October 2014

"Inconsistent approach to BVD by farmers, survey reveals" - Veterinary Times - 6 October 2014 - James Dessent - Vet Times 6 Oct 2014

"Eliminating virus boosts fertility and growth rates" - Farmers Guardian - 3 October 2014 - Farmers Guardian 3 Oct 2014

"Survey shows need for more advice on BVD" - Farmers Guardian - 26 September 2014 - Farmers Guardian 26 Sept 2014

"BVD must be addressed - no excuses" - British Dairying - September 2014 - Neil Howie - British Dairying - Sept 2014

"Diagnostic tests to detect and eradicate BVDV in herds" - Veterinary Times - 25 August 2014 - Prof Joe Brownlie & Dr Richard Booth - Vet Times 25 Aug 2014

"BVD - Why vaccination alone is not the complete answer to eradication" -Livestock - July/August 2014 - Prof Joe Brownlie - Livestock - July-August 2014

"BVD surveillance scheme launched" - Farmers Guardian - 20 June 2014 - Farmers Guardian 2014 June 20

"Testing times for BVD control" - Farmers Guardian - 20 June 2014 - Farmers Guardian 20 June 2014

"Bovine viral diarrhoea: update on disease and its control" - Veterinary Times - 19 May 2014 - Prof Joe Brownlie & Dr Richard Booth - Vet Times 19 May 2014

"Herd owner experiences of the voluntary phase of a BVD eradication programme" - Veterinary Record - 10 May 2014 - C Devitt, D A Graham, S Coughlan & J O'Flaherty - C Devitt - Vet Record - 10 May 2014

"Critical indicators of BVD" - Farmers Guardian - 9 May 2014 - Farmers Guardian 9 May 2014

"BVD: Not just one type of problem" - Farmers Guardian - 11 April 2014 - Dr Richard Booth - BVD - Not just one type of problem - Farmers Guardian - 11 Apr 14

"Join our Campaign - Together we can wipe out BVD" - Farmers Weekly - 28 March 2014 - Farmers Weekly 28 Mar 2014

"Involving farmers in tackling BVD" - Veterinary Record - 22 March 2014 - Involving farmers in tackling BVD - Vet Rec - 22 Mar 14

"New campaign to help fight BVD" - Farmers Guardian - 7 March 2014 - Farmers Guardian - 7 March 2014

"Join the national control programme to help manage BVD" - DairyCo - Elizabeth Berry - DairyCo - national control programme to help manage BVD

"BVD eradication is achievable" by Aly Balsom - Farmers Guardian - 21 February 2014 - Farmers Guardian 21 Feb 2014

"Why it pays to do something about BVD" by Katie Jones - Farmers Guardian - 15 February 2014 - Farmers Guardian 15 February 2014

"Herd Health Matters - BVD Update" - BCVA Newsletter - February 2014 - BCVA Newsletter - BVD Update - Feb 2014

"Development and review of the voluntary phase of a national BVD eradication programme in Ireland" Paper by Graham, DA, et al - Veterinary Record - 18 January 2014 - Graham D A - Vet Record - 18 Jan 2014

"Plans to make BVD testing compulsory in Northern Ireland" and "BVD control in England" News and Reports on Endemic Diseases, Veterinary Record - 14 December 2013 - Plans to make BVD testing compulsory in NI

"Cattle Review - Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)". A review in Livestock UK - November/December 2013, Vol 18 No 6 -written by David C Barrett Cattle Review - BVDV - Livestock UK

"BVA supports latest phase of BVD eradication scheme in Scotland". An article in theVeterinary Record - 23 November 2013 - BVA supports latest phase of BVD eradication scheme in Scotland - Vet Rec 23.11.13

"Leaders discuss National cattle health programme". An article in the Veterinary Times - 18 November 2013 - report by Rebecca Hubbard - Vet Times 18 Nov 2013 - Leaders Discuss National cattle health programme

"England's dairy industry 'behind' on BVD measures". An article in the Veterinary Times - 29 July 2013 - report by Rebecca Hubbard - Vet Times 29 July 2013 England's dairy industry behind on BVD measures

"Linking genetic distribution of BVDV strains in the UK to animal movements". Research Digest in the Veterinary Record - 20 July 2013 - R Booth, C Thomas, L El-Attar, G Gunn & J Brownlie - Booth et al - Vet Re - 20 July 2013

"Eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea virus". Editorial in the Veterinary Record - 22 June 2013 - written by Bryan Charleston - Eradicating bovine viral diarrhoea virus - Vet Rec - Bryan Charleston

"Bovine viral diarrhoea virus: biology, diagnosis and control". Editorial in theVeterinary Record - 27 April 2013 - written by Peter Nettleton - BVDV: biology, diagnosis and control - Vet Rec - P Nettleton

"Controlling BVD". A letter in the Veterinary Record - 6 April 2013 - written by Prof Joe Brownlie Controlling BVD - Vet Record 6 Apr 2013

"Join the national control programme to help manage BVD" produced by the Rural Development Programme for England - BVD Booklet

"English BVD Programme Veterinary Newsletter February 2013" produced by the Rural Development Programme for England - BVD Newsletter - Feb 2013

"Firm handle on BVD eradication". An article from the January 2013 edition of Cow Management, written by Karen WrightCow Management - Jan 2013 - page 1 & Cow Management - Jan 2013 - page 2

"Controlling BVD - call for practioners". A letter in the Veterinary Record - 12 January 2013 - written by Elizabeth Berry, Mary Vickers, Sophie Throup & Jonathan StathamControlling BVD - call for practitioners - Vet Record

"BVD Control Programme for England" - Rural Development Programme for England.BVD control programme for England

"Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)" Quick Reference Guide produced by the Premium Cattle Health Scheme, SACBVD Quick Reference Guide Page 1 BVD Quick Reference Guide Page 2

"What's your excuse?" An article from the December 2012 edition of Cow Management, written by Rachael PorterCow Management - December 2012

"Prevalence of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus in bulk tank milk and associated risk factors in Scottish diary herds" - Humphry, R W, Brulisauer, F, McKendrick, I J, Nettleton, P F & Gunn, G J. Veterinary Record - 3 November 2012 -Humphry et al Vet Rec 3 Nov 2012

"New Claim for Bovidec BVD Vaccine" - Novartis Animal Health Novartis Animal Health - New claim for Bovidec BVD Vaccine www.farmanimalhealth.co.uk/cattle-bovidec

"Providing a structured approach to BVD control". An article from the Irish Veterinary Journal, Volume 62, Number 12 - 20 September 2012. AHIJ Vol 62 No 12

"First Annual Report - GB Cattle Health & Welfare Group" - September 2012 -http://www.chawg.org.uk/

The Scottish Government BVD Eradication Programme -http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/farmingrural/Agriculture/animal-welfare/Diseases/disease/bvd

"The BVD experience". An article from the July/August 2012 edition of Cow Managementwritten by Karen WrightCow Management - July/August 2012

"Surveillance in vets' scopes as BCVA convenes for congress". An article fromVeterinary Times - 19 March 2012 - written by A David WeaverVet Times 19 March 2012

"Working together to eradicate BVD in Scotland". An article from the Veterinary Record - 17 March 2012 - written by Sheila VoasWorking together to eradicate BVD in Scotland - Vet Record

"BVD: Where Scotland leads, the rest of the UK should follow". An article from theFarmers Weekly - 8 March 2012 - written by Thomas Tiley.http://www.fwi.co.uk/Articles/08/03/2012/131813/39BVD-Where-Scotland-leads-the-rest-of-the-UK-should.htm

"'UK action on virus 'pathetic'". An article from The Press and Journal - 11 February 2012 - written by Joe WatsonUK action on virus pathetic The Press and Journal

"So Who is Responsible for Disease?". An article from the BCVA Congress Times - 24-26 November 2011, written by Prof Joe BrownlieBCVA Congress Times

"Eradicate BVD with tough testing and biosecurity". An article from the 4th November 2011 edition of Farmers Guardian, written by Prof Joe Brownlie and Jonathan Statham, edited by Katie LomasFarmers Guardian - 4th November 2011

"BVD Control moves on a pace". An article from the October/November 2011 edition ofCow Management written by Karen Wright Cow Management - October/November 2011

"BVD Information Leaflet for Irish Farmers and their Vets" - 4 July 2011 - Animal Health IrelandBVD Information Leaflet for Irish Farmers and their Vets

"Time to 'call time' on BVD". An article from the June 2011 edition of Cow Management,written by Karen WrightCow Management BVD NMR Feature June 2011

"Vaccination alone is simply not enough". An article from the Irish Farmers Journal - 21 November 2009, written by Jack Kennedyhttp://www.farmersjournal.ie/site/farming-Vaccination-alone-is-simply-not-enough-10078.html

"How BVD can wreak havoc in herd if left unchallenged." An article from the October 2008 edition of Dairy Farmer, written by Shirley MacmillanDiary Farmer Oct 2008

"Eradicating BVD: Booklet provides latest information". An article from Farmers Guardian on 18 April 2008. Farmers Guardian - 18 April 2008

BVD Virus Eradication Leaflet, produced in April 2008 by Pfizer Animal Health BVD Virus Eradication Leaflet

"BVD Virus - Eradication from Rutland - What are you doing about it?" A leaflet produced by XL Vets. XL Vets Leaflet

"Friend's expertise aids this vet's understanding of BVD" - article from the 4th February 2008 Veterinary Times by Graham Duncanson Vet Times

"Is it time to tackle BVD?" - article from December 2007 Cow ManagementCow Management Article

"BVD eradication - the first steps in a thousand have been taken" - article from July 2007 Veterinary Review, written by Richard GardVet Review article

"BVD: We must work towards eradication or be left behind - Devising an eradication strategy that works" - joint article from the 8 June 2007 Farmers Guardian, written by Prof Joe Brownlie & Phil SketchleyFarmers Guardian June 07 article

"Producers show willing to help eradicate BVD" - article from 18 May 2007 Farmers WeeklyFarmers Weekly Article

"Beating the scourge of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus" - article from 8 December 2006Farmers Weekly, written by Keith CutlerFarmers Weekly Dec 06 Article

"UK lagging behind on BVD control" - article from the 24 Nov 2006 Farmers Weekly,written by Chrissie LawrenceFarmers Weekly article

"BVDV: breaking the cycle of infection" - comment from The Veterinary Record, 15 July 1995 Vet Record 15 July 1995 001

"BVDV - not yet on the critical list" - article from Farming Business March/April 1994Farming Business Page 1 Farming Business Page 2

"Fighting back" - article from the September 1986 Dairy Farmer, written by John LeitchDairy Farmer - Fighting Back

"Boffins find twin clues to cattle killer disease" - article from 17 August 1984 Farmers Weekly, written by Harry Hope Boffin find twin clues to cattle killer disease - farmers weekly 17-8-84

Reviews (BVD)

Deregt, Bolin et al 1998

Deregt, D., S. R. Bolin, et al. (1998). Mapping of a type 1-specific and a type-common epitope on the E2 (gp53) protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus with neutralization escape mutants. Virus Res 53(1): 81-90.

The envelope protein E2 of BVDV is a major immunodominant protein important for neutralization of virus by antibodies, and therefore important for vaccine production and serotyping. This study mapped differences in the epitopes of E2 between BVDV 1 and BVDV 2, using monoclonal antibodies. Sequences of the E2 gene of several BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 isolates are included in the paper. Single nucleotide changes at amino acid positions 9, 32 and 72, preventing the BVDV 1-specific monoclonal antibody 157 from neutralizing BVDV 2 isolates, were identified. Four amino acids were identified within position 71-77 of E2 common to BVDV 1 and BVDV 2, which were critical for neutralization by monoclonal antibody 348. Monoclconal antibody 348 was reactive to all BVDV 2 strains, but to a lesser extent than BVDV 1.

Kummerer, Tautz et al 2000

Kummerer, B. M., N. Tautz, et al. (2000). The genetic basis for cytopathogenicity of pestiviruses. Vet Microbiol 77(1-2): 117-28.

This paper describes the first cytopathic BVDV isolate to have resulted from a method other than recombination, by point mutations in the NS2 gene, and describes these mutations. In cytopathic BVDV strains, the nonstructural protein NS2-3 is cleaved to produce NS2 and NS3. Mucosal disease occurs when an animal persistently infected with a non-cytopathic virus is either superinfected by an antigenically-related cytopathic virus, or when a non-cytopathic virus mutates. This paper identifies differences in the genome of cytopathic and non-cytopathic pairs. Insertions, duplications, rearrangements and deletions identified in cytopathic strains are illustrated in a series of diagrams. A cytopathic BVDV isolate was cloned and sequenced, and no genomic recombination was present. In this strain, the 3’ terminal third of the NS2 gene was required for cleavage of NS2-3. Cleavage of NS2-3 resulted from point mutations within the NS2 gene, and cleavage efficiency was mapped to residue 1555 of the polyprotein, as illustrated in the paper. Expression of NS3 in cytopathic strains is brought about by integration of ubiquitin-coding sequences into BVDV genomes, which create a protease cleavage site in the viral polyprotein. This is cut by a cellular protease, releasing the N-terminus of NS3. It is thought that the N-terminus of NS3 is required for the cytopathic effect of the virus.

Buckwold, Beer et al 2003

Buckwold, V. E., B. E. Beer, et al. (2003). Bovine viral diarrhea virus as a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus for the evaluation of antiviral agents. Antiviral Res 60(1): 1-15.

This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of using BVDV as a model of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) for studies into antiviral agents. BVDV is easy to grow in tissue culture, has a complete replication cycle and there are molecular clones available. The paper describes the structure and replication cycle of Flaviviridae, and compares BVDV to HCV. Despite low levels of sequence identity between HCV and BVDV, the authors believe that BVDV is a useful model for replication of HCV in studies into antiviral drugs, due to similarity in replication cycles, biology and homology of many gene products that are possible targets for antiviral drugs for HCV. The paper is positive about the potential use of BVDV as a model for antiviral agents directed against elements known as IRES in the 5’ UTR of HCV and BVDV, which initiate translation, as well as other proteins involved in replication (amino acid sequences of NS3 and NS5B in HCV and BVDV are aligned in the paper). The use of BVDV-HCV chimeras may be helpful in the development of anti-HCV antiviral agents.

Ridpath 2003

Ridpath, J. F. (2003). BVDV genotypes and biotypes: practical implications for diagnosis and control. Biologicals 31(2): 127-31.

This paper discusses the implications of the genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for clinical presentation, virus detection and vaccine protection. The paper illustrates how pestivirus species can be divided into three main branches, with BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 in one branch, classical swine fever (CSF), border disease virus (BDV) and unique viruses in the giraffe and reindeer in another, and a virus in a pronghorn antelope in a third branch. BVDV occurs in two genotypes, BVDV 1 and BVDV 2. Genetic drift, brought about by mutations of the RNA genome, is responsible for creating different genotypes and subgenotypes, causing variation in detection and vaccine protection of BVDV. Included in the paper are monoclonal antibody panels for BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 isolates, showing the variation in antibody-binding to different isolates. BVDV 1 and BVDV 2 can exist as two biotypes – non-cytopathic and cytopathic. BVDV causes a wide range of clinical diseases, with non-cytopathic isolates responsible for causing in utero persistent infections. Some non-cytopathic BVDV 2 strains cause severe clinical disease, known as severe acute BVD.

Vilcek, Durkovic et al 2005

Vilcek, S., B. Durkovic, et al. (2005). Genetic diversity of BVDV: consequences for classification and molecular epidemiology. Prev Vet Med 72(1-2): 31-5; discussion 215-9.

The discovery of a 12th subgenotype of BVDV 1 in Swiss cattle, BVDV 1k, found by comparing genomic sequences from the 5’ untranslated region (UTR), Npro and E2 regions is discussed. Isolates of BVDV 1d in India and BVDV 1c in Australia were also identified, and it was concluded that distribution of subgenotypes is unrelated to geographic origin of viral isolates. The authors question the ability of primers based on BVDV 1a and 1b to detect different isolates in diagnosis of the virus and vaccines containing BVDV 1a and 1b to protect against different subgenotypes.

Vilcek and Nettleton 2006

Vilcek, S. and P. F. Nettleton (2006). Pestiviruses in wild animals. Vet Microbiol 116(1-3): 1-12.

This paper discusses pestiviruses in wild animals. Most pestiviruses are not host-specific - CSF, BVDV 1 and giraffe pestivirus circulate in wild animals. Listed in the paper are the different isolates found in wild animal species. CSF antibodies are found in wild boars as well as domestic pigs, and viruses isolated from wild boars have been linked to outbreaks of CSF in pigs. BVDV antibodies have been found in deer, buffalo, bighorn sheep, chamois, eland, pronghorn antelope, alpacas and llamas. The possibility of wild animals acting as a reservoir of BVDV and CSF has implications for their eradication programs in European countries. There is no evidence at present for transmission of BVDV from wild to domestic animals. It is likely that wild animals are infected with more pestivirus species than have been identified at present.

Reviews (Mucosal Disease)

Brownlie, Clarke et al. 1984

Brownlie, J., M. C. Clarke, et al. (1984). "Experimental production of fatal mucosal disease in cattle." Vet Rec 114(22): 535-6.

In the space of two pages this pivotal paper begins to elucidate the complex aetiology of mucosal disease in cattle. Mucosal disease has been recognized since 1953, and an association with bovine viral diarrhea virus had been suspected, but the mechanism behind its onset had remained unknown. This paper was the first to fulfill Koch’s Postulates with regards to the causation of mucosal disease by reproducing mucosal disease in cattle and hypothesizing about the trigger for its onset, including the essential role of virus biotype. Brownlie et al showed experimentally that mucosal disease occurs when a calf persistently infected in utero with a non-cytopathic strain of BVDV becomes superinfected with a cytopathic strain of BVDV. Clinical appearance and post mortem examination, as well as the consistent finding of both cytopathic and non-cytopathic viruses in blood samples from cattle affected by mucosal disease were evidence for this. This has serious implications for herds with many persistently-infected calves, where a devastating outbreak of mucosal disease could occur.

Moennig, V et al. 1990

Moennig, V., et al., Reproduction of mucosal disease with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus selected in vitro. Vet Rec, 1990. 127(8): p. 200-3.

This study confirms the concept that pairs of antigenically closely-related cytopathic and non-cytopathic strains of BVDV are required for the production of fatal mucosal disease in cattle. Nine PI calves were inoculated with closely-related cytopathic strains, two were inoculated with closely related non-cytopathic strains, and two were inoculated with antigenically different cytopathic strains. Cytopathic viruses were selected using monoclonal antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein gp53. Superinfection with the closely-related cytopathic strains caused all nine animals to succumb to mucosal disease, and no neutralizing antibodies were produced. No signs of disease were recorded in the other animals, and those infected with unrelated cytopathic strains produced antibodies to the virus. In this study the non-cytopathic isolates in PI calves displayed almost identical reaction patterns, suggesting the presence of a single, uniform virus in the herd. This has severe implications as a mutation event could occur in one animal, and cause the superinfection of in-contact animals.

Brownlie 1991

Brownlie, J. (1991). "The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of disease." Arch Virol Suppl 3: 79-96.

This paper discusses the diverse nature of the diseases caused by BVDV and the complex pathogenesis of the virus. Signs caused by BVDV range from mild or inapparent with acute infections, to the fatal syndrome of mucosal disease. The overwhelming importance of non-cytopathic strains of BVDV in causing disease is stated, with these strains being responsible for in utero damage as well as persistently infected calves. Non-cytopathic strains cause acute disease, which is usually a mild infection but can be severe. The exposure of naïve pregnant cattle in the first trimester to a non-cytopathic virus, and the subsequent infection of the foetus causing immunotolerance in the calf and a persistently infected animal is discussed. The importance of BVDV in causing infertility and abortion must not be underestimated, with BVDV causing conception rates to be only 22.2% in one herd. BVDV causes severe disease when combined with respiratory and enteric pathogens. The importance of cytopathic BVDV strains in mucosal disease is discussed, with the requirement of a PI calf becoming superinfected with a cytopathic strain homologous to the non-cytopathic strain for mucosal disease to occur. Some of the uncertainties about the syndromes mentioned in this paper have now been further researched and clarified, such as the pathogenesis of acute infection.

Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C, 1993

Brownlie, J & Clarke M C. (1993). "Experimental and spontaneous mucosal disease of cattle: a validation of Koch's postulates in the definition of pathogenesis". Intervirology 35(1-4): p51-59.

This paper describes the fulfillment of Koch’s Postulates with regards to mucosal disease in cattle. The usefulness of postulates is evaluated, and their shortcomings explained. The clinical signs of mucosal disease are briefly described, being profuse diarrhea, with severe erosions in the intestine, targeting the Peyer’s patches, and ultimate death. The paper explains the pathogenesis of mucosal disease, and the requirement of a calf persistently-infected (PI) with non-cytopathic BVDV being superinfected with a cytopathic strain. The aetiology of mucosal disease is refined, with the discovery that the superinfecting cytopathic strain must be anitgenically homologous to the non-cytopathic strain in order for mucosal disease to occur, as PI calves can mount an immune response to heterologous strains. Evidence for the de novo production of cytopathogenic virus from persisting virus was demonstrated by the spontaneous development of mucosal disease in a PI animal that had been kept in strict isolation. Possible mechanisms for the production of cytopathic from non-cytopathic virus including genomic mutations, duplications and insertions are discussed, as well as the fact that cytopathic viruses cannot establish infection in the foetus.

Nakajima, N et al, 1993

Nakajima N, Fukuyama S, Hirahara T, Takamura K, Okada N, Kawazu K, Ui S, Kodama K.  1993.  Induction of mucosal disease in cattle persistently infected with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus by superinfection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease virus.  J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Feb;55(1):67-72.

In this study the clinical outcome of three PI animals superinfected with homologous and heterologous cytopathic BVDV strains to the non-cytopathic strains they were infected with was observed. This paper supports evidence for a requirement of viral homogeneity between non-cytopathic and cytopathic strains for mucosal disease to occur. Despite the small sample size, this study is valuable as it included natural and experimental infection, describes the clinical outcome, and the results of extensive serological and virological studies. Virus isolation from these animals identified the strains with which they were persistently infected. Two of the animals were naturally superinfected with cytopathic BVDV, one of which displayed typical signs of mucosal disease, and died; the other became anorectic and pyrexic, but recovered, having produced antibodies to the strain. This animal was PI with an antigenically-different strain. This animal and another were later experimentally infected with other cytopathic strains. One of the animals succumbed to mucosal disease after inoculation with an antigenically-related strain to its cytopathic virus. The other animal (which had earlier recovered from natural infection with cytopathic virus) did not suffer from mucosal disease, as this animal was PI with an antigenically different strain, confirmed by cross-neutralisation. It was concluded that antigenic relationship between cytopathic and non-cytopathic strains is important in the development of mucosal disease.

Sopp, P et al, 1994

Sopp, P., et al., Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus p80 protein in subpopulations of bovine leukocytes. J Gen Virol, 1994. 75 ( Pt 5): p. 1189-94.

BVDV is able to infect leukocytes, and it is thought that this may account for the defective immune response and immunotolerance seen with infection. This paper describes the detection of p80 protein in bovine leukocytes of viraemic cattle by flow cytometry and two-colour immunofluorescence, and concludes that this could be important for tolerance. The paper describes the use of different monoclonal antibodies for the detection of the non-structural protein, p80 and the structural protein, gp53. 23% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from eight viraemic animals were positive for viral antigen. Monocytes were found to express the highest level of p80, followed by CD2+ cells, and then by WC3+ B cells and WC1+ γδ T cells. These cells represented cells in which viral protein synthesis had occurred, as p80 is a non-structural protein. The staining of the PBMCs from a PI animal is shown. The proportions of PBMCs infected were independent of animal age. The proportions of subpopulations of leukocytes (B cells, monocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ T cells) were no different in the PI animals to control animals. The varying proportions of the different types of PMBC in animals of different ages found in previous studies in discussed.

Tautz, N et al, 1994

Tautz, N., et al., Pathogenesis of mucosal disease: a cytopathogenic pestivirus generated by an internal deletion. J Virol, 1994. 68(5): p. 3289-97.

The genome of a novel cytopathic BVDV strain, CP9 was characterized in this study. This study is the first to discover a second, smaller length of RNA (8kb) occurring in the cytopathic strain CP9 in addition to the 12.3kb genome. This 8kb length of RNA was shown to be a defective interfering particle (DI), by cell culture experiments. These are unable to replicate without a helper virus, whose replication they interfere with. In the absence of the DI, the cytopathic effect of the virus was abolished, suggesting that the DI is involved in cytopathogenicity of the virus and the production of fatal mucosal disease. They established in this paper that BVDV CP9 requires a DI as a cytopathogenic agent as well as a non-cytopathic helper virus. A 4.3kb deletion occurs in the DI which includes all of the BVDV structural proteins, and part of the nonstructural protein p125, identified by cDNA cloning and sequencing. The importance of p80 as a protein only found in cytopathic strains is highlighted. They showed in this study that the genome of DI9 can express p80.

Brownlie, Thompson & Curwen, 2000

Bovine virus diarrhoea virus - strategic decisions for diagnosis and control. In Pract., Apr 2000; 22: 176 - 187.

This extensive article covers many aspects of BVDV from the virus at a molecular level, to the practicalities of its control on a farm basis. Numerous pictures and tables clarify the information. After classifying the virus and its different strains, and describing its structure, the importance of the different biotypes, cytopathic and non-cytopathic, are explained. The various diseases that occur with BVDV are described, including acute infections, haemorrhagic disease, mucosal disease and in utero infections. The diagnostic tests for BVDV are compared, including blood and bulk milk samples for antibody testing, and virus detection using blood samples. A comprehensive discussion on the options for control of BVDV is included, and concludes that combining eradication with vaccination is optimal. For this to be successful, PI calves, identified by Scandinavian countries as being super-shedders of BVDV, must be detected and culled, and the breeding herd must be vaccinated. Despite this paper being written nine years ago, the diagnostic tests and methods of control discussed are still applicable, except that RT-PCR is now commonly used in diagnosis.  

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