Brucellosis is an infectious disease that imposes a vast burden on livelihoods as a result of human disease and impaired livestock productivity.

Control of ruminant brucellosis has been achieved with different degrees of success in several settings by applying a range of diagnostics and vaccines.

Control programmes based on targeted, strategic vaccination of some groups of animals may be a cost-effective way of significantly reducing the prevalence in endemic areas when resources are limited and animal movement between infected and non-infected herds cannot be fully avoided. However, although vaccines are effective at protecting animals from infection and reducing the prevalence of disease in the long term, an important problem of the use of vaccination is the inability to differentiate between truly infected and vaccinated animals with conventional diagnostic tests.

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