Department: Pathology and Pathogen Biology

Campus: Hawkshead

Research Groups: Ecosystems Health, Host-Pathogen Interactions and Vaccinology, Safe and Sustainable Food

Joe Brownlie is Emeritus Professor of Veterinary Pathology in the Department of Pathology & Infectious Diseases.  He currently heads up two active research groups at the RVC; one on Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) and one on Canine Infectious Coronavirus Disease (CIRD).

Professor Joe Brownlie qualified as a veterinary surgeon from Bristol University in 1967 and after a short spell in General Practice, undertook and was awarded a PhD in 1972 on “The isolation and characterisation of antimicrobial proteins from bovine milk”. After working at the Institute of Animal Health for 26 years, he joined the Royal Veterinary College in 1995 as Professor of Veterinary Pathology, and was Head of Department between 1996 and 2003.

He is currently appointed as the veterinary expert on the National Expert Panel for New & Emerging Infections and also Specialist Adviser to the House of Commons Select Committee on Biosecurity in UK Research Laboratories. In 2005 he was appointed veterinary expert member of the Co-ordination Team of Prof Sir David King's Foresight programme on Detection and Identification of Infectious Diseases' Programme. He has been Veterinary Consultant to a number of organisations, most notably the British Cattle Veterinary Association (BCVA) during the 2001 FMDV Outbreak. During that time he was co-opted to the Chief Government Scientist's Group as veterinary academic with detailed knowledge of the disease in veterinary species. He is an internationally recognised expert and has worked with many governments i.e. Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Indian Subcontinent and the Middle East. He has initiated and Chairs the National Strategy Group for BVD virus Control and is committed to educate, co-ordinate and deliver a voluntary programme on BVD Control across the UK.  His 3 pilot regional control schemes will be the basis for a future national programme. He has recently been made Chairman of Trustee’s of the Institute of Animal Health (IAH) and, in that position, will oversee, in the coming years, the redevelopment of the IAH as a national resource for veterinary science and surveillance.  

He has published over 130 research papers, presented internationally at over 225 meetings and supervised 32 PhD students. He has received of a number of distinguished national and international awards for his work; the latest being made Honorary Life Member of the British Cattle Veterinary Association – awarded by the British Cattle Veterinary Association (BCVA) at their annual conference, in recognition of outstanding contribution to cattle veterinary work. This is only the fourth time in its history that the BCVA has made such an award.

A Celebratory Research Day to commemorate Joe's 41 years of research was held on Friday 18th September 2009 at The Royal Veterinary College’s Hawkshead Campus entitled "Who Owns Disease?" (PDF).

Professor Brownlie has made key contributions to the understanding of many infectious diseases, including Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus (BIV), Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMDV), Bluetongue (BT) and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD).  He was the first person to unravel the complex pathogenesis of mucosal disease, to show the biological relevance of the two biotypes of BVDV and to demonstrate the molecular difference between them.  He has made real progress with understanding the molecular nature of the virus and the immune protective responses against BVDV (all published work).  He has now uncovered further novel mechanisms for long term viral persistence after acute infection and was the first to show vertical transmission through the oocyte. Much of his present work is concerned with the discovery and development of a ‘marker’ BVD vaccine that would become a worldwide vaccine.  He is also directing a research programme to identify the basis for virulence in the virus with some, particularly the Group 2 viruses, able to cause fatal disease whereas others are almost sub-clinical in their pathogenicity.  He and his team have already constructed an infectious copy of the virus and are presently examining the biological role of different viral genes.

He is the Principal Investigator for a programme of FMDV transmission across the placenta of pregnant sheep.  In that work, he has been able to demonstrate transmission of FMDV across the placenta with subsequent abortion, death of the foetus and, importantly, the persistence of virus in the foetus for periods longer than in the recovered dam.  This is the first published work of its kind and demonstrates a hitherto unrecognised risk pathway for maintenance of virus in the field.  He is also co-supervisor for bluetongue work on ‘overwintering’ of BTV and the genotypic variation for midge vectors.

Rarely, for an academic, Professor Brownlie has also taken his research from initial discovery of the ailment and its pathology, through to the development, creation and marketing of a vaccine. He has developed 4 new patented vaccines; the first world-wide BVDV vaccine with proven protection for the foetus, a BVDV Marker Vaccine, a Canine Coronavirus Virus Vaccine and a Mycoplasma Vaccine.

Professor Brownlie is presently supervisor to 6 students at the Institute of Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratories, working on FMDV, Bluetongue & the Morbilliviruses (PPR and Rinderpest). He is also widely considered as one of the most authoritative experts on emerging disease threats to the UK.

  1. Brownlie, J. (1971). Antimicrobial proteins in bovine neutrophils. Biochemical Journal 125:81-82
  2. Hibbitt, K G, Brownlie, J & Cole, C B. (1971). The antimicrobial activity of cationic proteins isolated from the cells in bulk milk samples. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 69:61-68
  3. Brownlie, J. (1972). The isolation and characterisation of antimicrobial proteins from bovine milk. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading (see Dissertation Abstract – No 8)
  4. Brownlie, J & Hibbitt, K G. (1972). Antimicrobial proteins isolated from bovine cervical mucus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 29:337-347
  5. Gourlay, R N, Howard, C J & Brownlie, J. (1972). The production of mastitis in cows by the intramammary inoculation of T-mycoplasmas. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 70:511-521
  6. Gourlay, R N, Brownlie, J & Howard, C J. (1973). Isolation of T-mycoplasmas from goats, and the production of subclinical mastitis in goats by the intramammary inoculation of human T-mycoplasmas. Journal of General Microbiology 76:251-254
  7. Howard, C J, Gourlay, R N & Brownlie, J. (1973). The virulence of T-mycoplasmas, isolated from various animal species, assayed by intramammary inoculation in cattle. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 71:163-170.
  8. Brownlie, J. (1974). The isolation and characterisation of antimicrobial proteins from bovine milk. Dissertation Abstract International XXXV:1
  9. Brownlie, J, Howard, C J & Gourlay, R N. (1974). Mycoplasmacidal activity of bovine milk for T-mycoplasmas. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 73:415-423
  10. Howard, C J, Gourlay, R N & Brownlie, J. (1974). Immunity in experimental T-mycolasma mastitis. Infection and Immunity 9: 400-403
  11. Gourlay, R N, Howard, C J & Brownlie, J. (1975). Localised immunity in experimental bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma dispar. Infection and Immunity 12: 947-950
  12. Howard, C J, Brownlie, J, Gourlay, R N & Collins, Jacqueline. (1975). Presence of a dialysable fraction in normal bovine whey capable of killing several species of bovine mycoplasmas. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 74: 261-270
  13. Brownlie, J, Howard, C J, Gourlay, R N. (1976). Pathogenicity of certain mycoplasma species in the bovine mammary gland. Research in Veterinary Science
  14. Brownlie, J. (1979). The effect of an intramammary infusion of endotoxin on the establishment of experimental mastitis by Streptococcus agalactiae in the cow. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 83:103-109
  15. Brownlie, J & Stott, E J. (1979). The response of bovine lymphocytes from lymph and blood to Phytohaemagglutinin. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 1:5-13
  16. Brownlie, J, Howard, C J & Gourlay, R N. (1979). The effect of an intramamary infusion of endotoxin on experimentally induced mycoplasmal mastitis. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge) 83:501-505
  17. Gourlay, R N, Howard, C J & Brownlie, J. (1979). Inoculation of Acholeplasma laidlawii strains and Acholeplasma axanthum into the bovine mammary gland. Veterinary Record 105:100-102
  18. Howard, C J & Brownlie, J. (1979). Interaction of certain bovine immunoglobins with complement in a single radial haemolysis system. Research in Veterinary Science 27:388-389
  19. Austin, A R, Whitehead, D C, Le Du, Y L P & Brownlie, J. (1980). The influence of dietary iodine in the blood serum of cows and calves in the perinatal period. Research in Veterinary Science 28:128-130
  20. Brownlie, J, Nuttall, PA, Stott, E J, Taylor, G & Thomas, L H. (1980). Experimental infection of calves with two strains of bovine virus diarrhoea virus: certain immunological reactions. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 1: 371-378
  21. Howard, C J, Taylor, G T & Brownlie, J. (1980). Surface receptors for immunoglobulin on bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages. Research in Veterinary Science 29:128-130
  22. Cullen, P R, Bunch, C, Brownlie, J & Morris, P J. (1982). Sheep lymphocyte antigens: a preliminary study. Animal Blood Groups and Biochemical Genetics 13: 149-159
  23. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1984). Experimental production of fatal mucosal disease in cattle. Veterinary Record 114:535-536
  24. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J (1984). Mucosal disease in cattle. Veterinary Record 115:158
  25. Cullen, P R, Brownlie, J & Kimberlin, R H. (1984). Sheep lymphocyte antigens and scrapie. Journal of Comparative Pathology 94:405-415
  26. Jeggo, M, Wardley, R C & Brownlie, J. (1984). A study of the role of cell-mediated immunity in bluetongue virus infection in sheep, using cellular adoptive transfer techniques. Immunology 52:403-410
  27. Brownlie, J. (1985). Clinical aspects of the bovine virus diarrhoea/mucosal disease complex in cattle. In Practice 7:195-202
  28. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1985). Aetiology and pathogenesis of mucosal disease: current concepts, observations and speculation. Australian Veterinary Journal 62:142-143
  29. Brownlie, J. (1985). BVD - understanding the nature of infection. Proc. British Cattle Veterinary Association 109-111
  30. Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1985). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in cattle sera. Veterinary Microbiology 10: 359-369
  31. Jeggo, M H, Wardley, R C, Brownlie, J. (1985). Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection. Prog Clin Biol Res 178:477-87
  32. Howard, C J, Brownlie, J & Thomas, L H. (1986). Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea virus viraemia in cattle in the UK. Veterinary Record 119:628-629
  33. Jeggo, M H, Wardley, R C, Brownlie, J & Corteyn, A. (1986). Serial inoculation of sheep with two bluetongue virus types. Research in Veterinary Science 40:386-392
  34. Brownlie, J, Clarke M C, Howard, C J & Pocock, D H. (1987). Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus Infection of cattle. Ann Rech Vet 18:157-166
  35. Howard, C J, Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1987). Comparison by the neutralisation assay of pairs of non-cytopathogenic and cytopathogenic strains of bovine virus diarrhoea virus isolated from cases of mucosal disease. Veterinary Microbiology 13: 361-369
  36. Pocock, D H, Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1987). Variation in the intracellular polypeptide profiles from different isolates of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Archives of Virology 94:43-53
  37. Brownlie, J. (1988). Mucosal disease - A pestilence of cattle. Journal of Royal Agricultural Society, England 150:145-152
  38. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989). The failure of the cytopathogenic biotype of bovine virus diarrhoea virus to induce tolerance. Immunobiology 4:151
  39. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989). Experimental infection of cattle in early pregnancy with a cytopathic strain of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Research in Veterinary Science 116:307-311
  40. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C & Howard, C J. (1989). Enfermedad de las mucosas-estudios secuenciales sobre la infectividad del virus de la diarrea virica bovina (BVD) sobre el tejido linfatico intestinal. Med. Vet., 6:3-8
  41. Clarke, M C, Brownlie, J, & Howard, C J. (1989). The effect of immunosuppression with corticosteroid on the infection of calves with bovine sirus diarrhoea. Immunobiology 4:151
  42. Howard, C J, Clarke, M C & Brownlie, J. (1989). Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody. Veterinary Microbiology 19:195-203
  43. Brownlie, J. (1990). Pathogenesis of mucosal disease and molecular aspects of bovine virus diarrhoea virus. Veterinary Microbiology 23:371-382
  44. Brownlie, J. (1990). The pathogenesis of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infections. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz, 9:43-59
  45. Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1990). Bovine virus diarrhoea virus: speculation and observations on current concepts. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz, 7:223-230
  46. De Moerlooze, L, Desport, M, Renard, A, Lecomte, C, Brownlie, J & Martial, J A (1990). The Coding Region for the 54-kDa Protein of Several Pestiviruses lacks host insertions but reveals a “Zinc finger-like” domain. Virology 177:812-815
  47. Desport, M & Brownlie J. (1990). Molecular characterisation of the coding region for p.125 for homologous BVDV biotypes. Arch Virol S3:261-266
  48. Mignon, B, Schwers, A, Waxweiler, S, Boulanger, D, Dubuisson, J, Brownlie, J & Pastoret, P P. (1990). Etude de la stabilite antigenique d’une souche non cytopathogene de virus BVD chez des animaux infectes experimentalement de maniere persistante. Ann Med Vet 134:325-329
  49. Brownlie, J. (1991). The pathways for bovine virus diarrhoea virus biotypes in the pathogenesis of disease. Arch Virol 3:79-96
  50. Howard, C J, Clarke, M C, Sopp, P & Brownlie, J. (1992). Immunity to bovine virus diarrhoea virus in calves: the role of different T-cell subpopulations analysed by specific depletion in vivo with monoclonal antibodies. Vet Immunol Immunopath 32: 303-314
  51. Meyers, G, Tautz, N, Stark, R, Brownlie, J, Dubovi, E J, Collett, M S & Thiel, H-J. (1992). Rearrangement of viral sequences in cytopathogenic pestiviruses. Virology 191:368-386
  52. Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1993). Experimental and spontaneous Mucosal disease of cattle: a validation of Koch’s Postulates in the definition of pathogenesis Interviology: 35:51-59
  53. Ellis, S A, Caulfield, J J, Sarjent, I L and Brownlie, J. (1993). Expression of MHC Class 1 at the materno-fetal interface: Are we closer to understanding the regulation and importance of these molecules? Reproductive Immunology 97:133–140
  54. Hibberd, R C, Turkington, A & Brownlie, J. (1993). Fatal bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of adult cattle. Vet Rec 132(9):227
  55. Kertayadna, G, Wilcox, Soeharsono, S, Hartaningsih, N, Coelen, R J, Cook, R D, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1993). Characteristics of a retrovirus associated with Jembrana disease in Bali Cattle. Journal of Virology 74:1765-1773
  56. Brownlie, J. (1994). The management and control of bovine virus diarrhoea virus in cattle herds. Cattle Practice 4:24-36
  57. Brownlie, J, Collins, M E & Heaton, P. (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus - a potential cause of disease in cattle? Vet Record 135:289-291
  58. Desport, M, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1994). Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus RNA by in situ hybridisation with Digoxigenin-Labelled Riboprobes. Intevirology 37:269-276
  59. Howard, C J, Clarke, M C, Sopp, P & Brownlie, J. (1994). Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challenge Vet. Micro 42:171-179
  60. Howard, C J, Sopp, P, Brownlie, J, Parsons, K R & Lee, L S. (1994). Phenotypic variation and functional differences within dendritic cells isolated from afferent lymph. Immunology 83: suppl.1 82
  61. Howie, N M, McKay, I G, Davies, A B & Brownlie, J. (1994). Problems in a Cheshire herd. Vet Rec 134(12):310
  62. Sopp, P, Hooper, L B, Clarke, M C, Howard, C J and Brownlie, J. (1994). Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus p80 protein in subpopulations of bovine leucocytes. Journal of General Virology 75:1189-1194
  63. Booth, P J, Stevens, D A, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1995). Detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen and RNA in oviduct and granulosa cells of persistently infected cattle. J Reprod Fert 105:17-24
  64. Brownlie, J & Clarke, M C. (1995). Bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) biotype distribution in the progress of intestinal lesions. Bull Soc Franco-Japonaise Sci Vet 6: 77-81
  65. Brownlie, J, Clarke, M C, Hooper, L B & Bell, G D. (1995). Protection of the bovine foetus from bovine virus diarrhoea virus by use of a new inactivated vaccine (Torvac-BVD). Vet Record 137:58-62
  66. Collins, M E, Stevens, D A, Jenner, L J & Brownlie, J. (1995). A rapid method for mRNA detection in single cell biopsies from preimplantation stage bovine embryos. Thiogenology 47:1227-1238
  67. Belloc, C, Polack, B, Schwartz-Cornil, I, Brownlie, J & Levy, D. (1996). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: facts and questions. Vet Res 27(4-5):395-402.
  68. Howard, C J, Sopp, P, Brownlie, J, Parsons, K R, Kwong. L-S & Collins, R A. (1996). Afferent Lymph veiled cells stimulate proliferative responses in allogeneic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but not γδ TCR+ T cells. Immunology 88:558-564
  69. Brownlie, J, Booth, P J, Stevens, D A & Collins, M E. (1997). Expression of non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in oocytes and follicles of persistently infected cattle. Veterinary Record 141:335-337 (plus colour illustrations Veterinary Record 141:425)
  70. Howard, C J, Sopp, P, Brownlie, J, Kwong, L S, Parsons, K R, & Taylor, G. (1997). Identification of two distinct populations of dendritic cells in afferent lymph that vary in their ability to stimulate T-cells. Journal of Immunology 159: 5372-5382
  71. Innocent, G, Morrison, I, Brownlie, J & Gettinby G. (1997). A computer simulation of the transmission of immunity and survival of persistently infected animals on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in dairy cattle. Epidemiol Infect 119(1):91-100
  72. Innocent, G, Morrison, I, Brownlie, J & Gettinby G. (1997). The use of a mass-action model to validate the output from a stochastic simulation model of bovine viral diarrhoea virus spread in a closed dairy herd. Prev Vet Med 31(3-4):199-209
  73. Booth, P J, Collins, M E, Jenner, L, Prentice, H, Ross, J, Badsberg, J H & Brownlie, J. (1998). Noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) reduces cleavage but increases blastocyst yield of in vitro produced embryos. Theriogenology 50: 769-777
  74. Brownlie, J, Hooper, L B, Thompson, I & Collins, M E. (1998). Maternal recognition of foetal infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) - the bovine pestivirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Virology 10:141-150
  75. Chadwick, B J, Desport, M, Brownlie, J, Wilcox, G E & Dharma, D M N. (1998). Detection of Jembrana disease virus in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other tissues by in situ hybridisation of paraffin-embedded sections. Journal of General Virology 79: 101-106
  76. Desport, M, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (1998). Genome instability in BVDV: an examination of the sequence and structural influences on RNA recombination. Virology 246:352-361
  77. Heaton, P R, Johnstone, P & Brownlie, J. (1998) Investigation of the cellular tropism of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Res Vet Sci 65:33-40
  78. Booth, P J, Collins, M E, Jenner, L, Prentice, H, Ross, J, Badsberg, J H, & Brownlie J. (1999). Association of non-cytopathogenic BVDV with bovine blastocysts: effects of washing, duration of viral exposure and degree of blastocyst expansion. Veterinary Record 144:150-152
  79. Brownlie, J and England, G C W. (1999). Viral infections with pathological consequences for reproduction in veterinary species. Viral Infections in Obstetrics and Gynaecology 14: 289-333
  80. Collins, M E, Desport, M & Brownlie, J. (1999). Bovine viral diarrhea virus quasispecies during persistent infection. Virology 259:85-98
  81. Brownlie, J, Thompson, I & Curwen, A. (2000). Bovine virus diarrhoea virus – strategic decisions for diagnosis and control. In Practice 22:176-187
  82. Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie, J & Collins, M E. (2000). Co-administration of IL-2 enhances antigen-specific immue responses following vaccination with DNA encoding the glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Veterinary Microbiology 76:129-142
  83. Barboni, P, Thompson, I, Brownlie, J, Hartaningsih, N & Collins, M E. (2001). Evidence for the presence of two bovine lentiviruses in the cattle population of Bali. Vet Microbiol 80:313-327
  84. Brownlie, J. (2001). Strategic decisions to evaluate before implementing a vaccine programme in the face of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak. Veterinary Record 148:358-360
  85. Ditcham, F, Al-Obaidi, A H R, McStay, D, Mottram, T T, Brownlie, J & Thompson, I. (2001). An immunosensor with potential for the detection of viral antigens in body fluids, based on surface second harmonic generation. Biosensors & Bioelectronics 16: 221-224
  86. Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie, J & Collins, M E. (2001). Cytokine adjuvancy of BVDV DNA vaccine enhances both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. Vaccine 19:4226-4235
  87. Becher, P, Thiel, J J, Collins, M, Brownlie, J & Orlich, M. (2002). Cellular sequences in pestivirus genomes encoding gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor-associated protein and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kilodaltons. Journal of Virology 76(24):13069-13076.
  88. Kempster, S, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (2002). Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Virology 147:643-64
  89. Brownlie, J & Munro, R (2003). Forensic veterinary medicine. Veterinary Record Feb 8; 152(6):184
  90. Chalker, V J, Brooks, H W & Brownlie, J. (2003). The association of Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus with canine infectious respiratory disease. Veterinary Microbiology Aug 29; 95:149-156
  91. Chalker, V, Toomey, C, Opperman, S, Brooks, H W, Ibuoye, M A, Brownlie, J & Rycroft, A N. (2003). Respiratory disease in kennelled dogs: serological responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica Lipopolysaccharide do not correlate with bacterial isolation or clinical respiratory symptoms. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology May; 10(3):352-6.
  92. Edwards, S, Brownlie, J & Bennett, M. (2003). Extension of the VLA surveillance network. Veterinary Record Apr 12; 152(15):477.
  93. Erles, K, Toomey, C, Brooks, H W, Brownlie, J. (2003). Detection of a Group 2 Coronavirus in Dogs with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease. Virology 2003 Jun 5; 310(2):216-223
  94. Nobiron, I, Thompson, I, Brownlie J & Collins, ME. (2003). DNA vaccination against bovine viral diarrhoea virus induces humoral and cellular responses in cattle with evidence for protection against viral challenge. Vaccine, 2003 May 16; 21(17-18):2091-2101.
  95. Stephens, S A, Brownlie, J, Charleston, B & Howard, C J (2003). Differences in cytokine synthesis by the sub-populations of dendritic cells from afferent lymph. Immunology Sept 110:48-57
  96. Chalker, V J & Brownlie, J. (2004). Taxonomy of the Canine Mollicutes by 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region sequence comparison. International Journal of Systemic & Evolutionary Microbiology Mar; 54:537-542
  97. Chalker, V J, Owen, W M A, Paterson, C J I & Brownlie, J. (2004) Development of a polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycoplasma felis in domestic cats. Veterinary Microbiology May 20; 100:77-82.
  98. Chalker, V J, Owen, W A, Paterson, C, Barker, E, Brooks, H, Rycroft, A N & Brownlie, J. (2004) Mycoplasmas associated with canine infectious respiratory disease. Journal of Microbiology Oct; 150:3491-3497
  99. Erles, K, Dubovi, E J, Brooks, H W, & Brownlie, J. (2004) Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory diseases. Journal of Clinical Microbiology Oct; Vol 42, No 10:4524-4529
  100. Stokstad, M., Collins M. E., Sorby R., Barboni, P, Meyers, G, Løken T. and Brownlie, J. (2003) The role of a defective interfering particle DI9c in mucosal disease in cattle. Arch Virol Mar 2004; 149(3):571-82
  101. Stokstad, M., Collins M. E., Brownlie, J. (2004) Analysis of variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus E2 sequence following transplacental infection of cattle. Vet Microbiol Sep 8; 102(3-4):141-145
  102. Erles, K & Brownlie, J. (2005). Investigation into the causes of canine infectious respiratory disease: antibody responses to canine respiratory coronavirus and canine herpesvirus in two kennelled dog populations. Archives of Virology 2005 Aug; 150(8):1493-1504.
  103. Werling, D, Rurik, A, Heaney, J, Moeller, E & Brownlie, J. (2005). Ability to differentiate between cp and ncp BVDV by microarrays: Towards an application in clinical veterinary medicine. Veterinary Immunology & Immunopathology Oct 18; 108:157-164
  104. Young, N J, Thomas, C J, Thompson, I, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (2005). Immune responses to non-structural protein 3 (NS3 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in NS3 DNA vaccinated and naturally infected cattle. Preventative Veterinary Medicine Nov 15; 72:115-120.
  105. Brownlie, J, Peckham, C, Waage, J, Woolhouse, M, Lyall, C, Meagher, L. Tait, J, Baylis, M & Nicoll, A. (2006). Foresight. Infectious Diseases: preparing for the future Future Threats. Office of Science and Innovation, London p1-83.
  106. King, D A, Peckham C, Waage, J K, Brownlie, J, & Woolhouse, M. (2006) Infectious Diseases – Preparing for the future. Science Sept 8thVol 303:1392-1393.
  107. Lindberg, A, Brownlie, J, Gunn, G J, Houe, H, Moennig, V, Saatkamp, H W, Sandvik, T, Valle, P S. (2006). The control of bovine diarrhoea virus in Europe: today and in the future. Rev Sci tech Offic Int Epiz, 25:961-979.
  108. Priestnall, S L, Brownlie, J, Dubovi, E J, Erles, K. (2006). Serological prevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus. Vet Micro 115:43-53
  109. Young, N J, Thomas, C J, Collins, M E & Brownlie, J. (2006). Real-time RT-PCR detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in whole blood using an external RNA reference. Journal of Virological Methods 138: 218-222
  110. Erles, K, Shiu, K-B, & Brownlie, J. (2007). Isolation and sequence analysis of canine respiratory coronavirus. Virus Research Mar; 124(1-2):78-87.
  111. Priestnall, S L, Pratelli, A, Brownlie, J & Erles, K. (2007). Serological prevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus in Southern Italy and epidemiological relationship with canine enteric coronavirus. Journal of Vet Diagn Invest 19:176-180
  112. Ryan, E, Zhang, Z, Brooks, H W, Horsington, J & Brownlie, J. (2007). Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus crosses the placenta and causes death in foetal lambs. Journal of Comparative Pathology 136:256-265
  113. Brownlie, J. (2008). Co-ordinating the approach to Bluetongue. Vet Rec 162(9):28
  114. Dustan, B H, Spencer, Y I, Casalone, C, Brownlie, J & Symmons, M M. (2008) A histopathological and immunohistochemical review of archived UK caprine scrapie cases. Vet Pathol 45:443-454
  115. Erles, K & Brownlie, J. (2008) Canine Respiratory Coronavirus: An emerging pathogen in the canine infectious respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin Small Animal 38:815-825
  116. Rweyemamu, M, Roeder, P, McKay, D, Sumption, K, Brownlie, J, Leforban, Y, Valarcher, J-F, Knowles, N J & Saraiva V. (2008). Epidemiological patterns of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Worldwide. Transboundary & Emerging Diseases 55 57-72
  117. Rweyemamu, M, Roeder, P, MacKay, D, Sumption, K, Brownlie, J, & Leforban, Y. (2008). Planning for the progressive control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Worldwide. Transboundary & Emerging Diseases 55 73-87
  118. Ryan, E, Horsington, J, Brownlie, J & Zhang, Z. (2008). Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus Infection in fetal lambs: tissue tropism and cytokine response. J Comp Path 138:108-120
  119. Ryan, E, Horsington, J, Durand, S, Brooks, H W, Alexandersen, S, Brownlie, J & Zhang, Z. (2008). Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in young lambs: pathogenesis and tissue tropism. Vet Micro 127(3-4):258-274
  120. Veronesi, E, Mertens, P P, Shaw, A E, Brownlie, J, Mellor, P S & Carpenter, S T. (2008). Quantifying bluetongue virus in adult Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Ent 45(1):129-132
  121. Collins, M E, Heaney, J, Thomas, C J & Brownlie J. (2009). Infectivity of Pestivirus following persistence of acute infection. Vet Micro 138:289-296
  122. Erles, K & Brownlie J. (2009). Sequence analysis of divergent canine coronavirus strains present in a UK dog population. Virus Research 141:21-25
  123. Mannering, S A, McAuliffe, L, Lawes, J R, Erles, K & Brownlie, J. (2009). Strain typing of Mycoplasma cynos isolates from dogs with respiratory disease. Vet Micro 135:292-296
  124. Mitchell, J A, Brooks, H, Shiu, K-B, Brownlie, J & Erles, K. (2009). Development of a quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of canine respiratory coronavirus. Journal of Virological Methods 155:136-142
  125. Priestnall, S L, Mitchell, J A, Brooks, H W, Brownlie, J & Erles, K. (2009). Quantification of mRNA encoding cytokines and chemokines and assessment of ciliary function in canine tracheal epithelium during infection with canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV). Vet Immunology & Immunopathology 127:38-46
  126. Thomas, C, Young, N J, Heaney, J, Collins, M E, & Brownlie, J. (2009). Evaluation of efficacy of mammalian and baculovirus expressed E2 subunit vaccines candidates to bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Vaccine 27:2387-2393
  127. Anstaett, O L, Brownlie, J & Collins M E & Thomas, C J. (2010). Validation of endogenous reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in bovine lymphoid cells (BL3) infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)&am

In 2000, Professor Brownlie initiated a degree course in Veterinary Pathology to encourage veterinary graduates into research. This new one-year intercalated degree – BSc (Hons) in Veterinary Pathology - for veterinary undergraduates from all veterinary schools in the UK and Uppsala in Sweden has attracted unprecedented funding from the Wellcome Trust and has become a "Flag-ship" course.  100% of students have successfully completed the degree and approx  80% of these students have gone on to undertake post-grad training and research, thereby providing the seedcorn for future veterinary leadership in science. In 2006 he received the James Bee Educator Prize for outstanding leadership and conduct of this course.

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